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EDUCATION 

1977 



CURRICULUM GUIDE 



FOR 



SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL 



PHYSICS 



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JUNE 1977 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 



The Alberta Department of Education acknowledges with 
appreciation the contributions of the Physics Ad Hoc Curriculum 
Committee members to the preparation of this curriculum guide. 
The Committee operated under the guidance of the Science Coordinating 
Committee and the Curriculum Policies Board. 



Physics Ad Hoc Committee 

Mr. F. Nordby Alberta Education, Grande Prairie, 

Chairman 

Mr. T. Grier Calgary Public School Board 

Mr. 0. Hrynyk County of Lament 

Mr. J. Kruger Edmonton Public School Board 

Dr. E. Milton University of Lethbridge 

Mr. G. Snell Red Deer Separate School District 

Dr. L. Tolman Associate Director of Curriculum 

Typing 

Norma Paradis - with assistance from 

Heather Williams 

Diane Lorimer 

Sylvia Baker 
Editor - Lisa McCardle 
Cover Design - Lenore Bell Photographs - Rod McConnell 



NOTE: This ourrioulwn guide is a service pybtication only. The 
official statement regarding Senior High School Biology is to he 
found in the Senior High School Program of Studies. The information 
in the guide is prescriptive insofar as the content duplicates that 
given in the Program of Studies, 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 
University of Alberta Libraries 



http://archive.org/details/shsphysics102030cg77albe 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Introduction 1 

The Teaching of Physics 1 

The Physics Curriculum 2 

Objectives of Secondary Science 5 

Objectives of the High School Physics Program 7 

Summary of The Secondary Physics Program 8 

Physics 10 9 

Core 10 

Electives 

Motion In The Heavens I - Ancient to Galileo 27 

Motion In The Heavens II - Newton to Einstein 29 

Cosmology - Concepts Of The Universe From Early Period 

to Newtonian Era 31 

Fluids At Rest 33 

Science and Scientists 36 

Space Exploration 41 

Experimental Studies of Motion 44 

Physics 20 47 

Core 48 

Electives 

The Kinetic Theory of Matter 1 57 

Sound 60 

Energy Resources, Energy Crisis, Energy Conservation 64 

Heat, Calorimetry and Thermal Expansion 66 

Physics of The Environment 69 

Simple Machines 71 

Physics and Personal Safety 74 

Physics 30 80 

Core 81 

Electives 

Geometric Optics 102 

Optical Instruments 105 

The Kinetic Theory of Matter II 108 

The Special Theory of Relativity Ill 

Alternating Current 113 

Electrical Circuits 118 

Vectors and Equilibrium 122 

Meters, Motors and Generators 125 

The Speed of Light 128 

Trajectories and Orbits 130 

"Pictures of a Megajoule" 134 

Reference Materials 144 

Abbreviations Used 149 



INTRODUCTION 



Since physics is considered by many to be the basic science 
underlying much of man's understanding of nature, it seems not only 
reasonable but necessary to provide a program that is of value to a 
significant proportion of the high school population. 

To this end, a program has been developed which will meet, in a 
balanced way, the objectives of Secondary School Science as published 
in the Program of Studies for Secondary Schools. This program presents 
physics as a lively, interesting and important part of the scientific 
adventure of humanity. Physics has developed in a "jery human way with 
a record of frustration, creativity and enlightenment; where progress 
occurs after extensive experimentation and practical application, yet 
later investigations produce revision or even rejection of previously 
accepted physical theories. These aspects have been characteristic not 
only of the development of physics in the past but are also evident 
in the physics of the twentieth century. Consequently, students should 
learn to view physics not as a science in which all basic principles 
have been developed many years ago, but which will always involve much 
exciting activity today. 

This physics course will appeal to wider groups of students. To 
make the course more responsive to varying student interests and 
abilities, available materials and teacher expertise, and the students' 
eventual vocational goals, a certain amount of flexibility is included 
in the program. Students will spend a significant portion of the time 
available for physics in the study of electives that might better meet 
their individual needs. 

The Teaching of Physics 

The teaching of physics is open to many teaching styles or approaches. 
The choice is determined by a number of factors such as facilities and 
resources available, class size, personality of the teacher, and students' 
backgrounds and interests. It is worthwhile to consider some of the 
factors that influence the general approach to be selected. 

Firstly, a number of overall objectives have been defined for science 
education in the Province of Alberta (see page 9, Objectives of Secondary 
School Physics Teaching). In previous physics courses the major emphasis 
has been on the assimilation of scientific knowledge in physics and on the 
developments of scientific skills appropriate to physics. Although these 
objectives will always be important in good physics teaching, a determined 
effort must be made to emphasize the broader objectives of this physics 
program. These broad objectives can be met in the core portion of the 
program. For example, the historical development of physical theories, the 
role that physics has played in the development of society, and the under- 
standing that physicists, as human beings, reflect the values and aspirations 
of the society in which they live and work are incorporated into the core 



material. Some of the other objectives are more suited to development 
in ways that cater to individual needs and interests and to local 
facilities and expertise. Consequently, each elective has general 
objectives to be achieved by the students. 

Secondly, although students entering physics have generally been 
of high ability, they nevertheless vary considerably in their areas of 
interest and eventual vocational goals. Students vnth special interest 
and ability in science have been served well by a theoretical, problem- 
solving physics course as have some other students, more technically 
inclined, who seek a career in engineering or technology. Most students, 
however, are not aiming for a career in science and have not found the 
study of physics very satisfying. To meet the Objectives of Secondary 
School Science, all students should be equipped with a basic measure of 
scientific literacy so they can assume active and useful roles as 
citizens in a democratic society. It is hoped the physics curriculum 
and the choice of teaching strategy will allow each of the above groups 
sufficient flexibility to satisfy their needs and interests. The variety 
of electives will serve all students, whether they be theoretically or 
technically inclined. It is the intent of this program to present 
physics as a human activity basic to the education of a majority of 
students. 

Thirdly, although the core is basic for al 1 students, factors 
such as class size, local facilities and teacher expertise, will strongly 
influence the choice and treatment of electives. It may not always be 
possible, or even desirable, to allow individual students to choose 
freely the electives. Conditions may be sufficiently restrictive that 
the teacher and class as a whole may "choose" by some means, to study 
a certain elective as a group. Perhaps local conditions may dictate 
that students choose from a smaller selection of electives. All such 
approaches are valid and should serve local conditions in the best way 
possible. 

The Physics Curriculum 

The features of the Physics Program for Secondary Schools in 
Alberta are as follows: 

1 . Core-Elective Organization 

A body of basic physical skills and knowledge constitutes 
the core of the Physics Program, which will require about sixty 
percent of the time available. An elective portion requiring 
about forty percent of the total time is divided into learning 
modules of ten to twenty-five hours. These electives when 
appropriate, can be studied concurrently with the core. 

It is very important, if the advantages and intent of the 
core-elective curriculum are to be achieved that teachers ensure 



that t ime a ll otments to the core a nd elective porti ons of the 
c ourse a re met. It is easy to usurp some of the time allotted to 
electives to cover the "more important" core material. The 
philosophy of the core-elective approach dictates that this be 
scrupulously avoided. 

An underlying advantage of this kind of a curriculum is that 
it is not dependent on one set of materials but can be taught 
using a variety of materials available. A conscious effort should 
be made to increase this variety as each year passes. 

Concept Development 

Historically, the generalizations and theories of physics 
developed rather haltingly, with many incorrect or incomplete 
attempts, with many questions and prejudices which had to be 
overcome before the generalizations and theories became established 
as part of the physics tradition. Many of these questions and 
prejudices also exist in the minds of students studying the 
physical world for the first time and it is hoped that the study 
of the historical development of the major concepts together with 
adequate laboratory activities will provide the interaction with 
the physical world that will allow the concepts to form and grow. 
Physics is not the work of a small number of geniuses, but of many 
human beings who, with their individual strengths and weaknesses, 
slowly progress in their search for a better description of the 
physical world. 

Elective s 

An important component of this program is this portion devoted 
to electives. It is intended that a choice of topics be provided 
which will enable teachers to adapt this course to meet local needs. 
This choice may be left with the teacher or it may be desirable 
to involve teachers in making decisions as to which elective is 
to be taken. Further, teachers will want to decide whether or not 
to require the whole class to take an elective together or whether 
students will work individually or in small groups. Consideration 
should be given to the abilities and future plans of the student when 
making choices. 

Evaluation practices should reflect the importance attached to 
electives, in terms of both time spent and their intent. Suggestions 
are included in some of the elective outlines, however, teachers 
should not be restricted by these but rather should use those 
methods which seem most appropriate to their situation and which 
provide the necessary data and information. 

Opportunity is provided at each level for the teacher or group 
of teachers to prepare a locally developed unit. In preparing such 
a unit special attention should be given to: 



1. .the interests and abilities of the students. 

2. the interests and expertise of the teacher. 

3. facilities and resources available. 

4. balance of the total program. 

5. the overall intent of the program as outlined in the program 
of studies and this document. 

The outline for such a unit should include carefully delineated 
objectives or statement of purpose and should be directed to a rather 
narrow topic. It is not sufficient to simply spend extra time on the 
core and refer to that as the elective portion of the course. Study 
of a manageable topic with clear objectives will give students a J 
greater sense of accomplishment and satisfaction. Careful ' 

consideration should be given the activities to be included and how 
they will contribute to the achievement of the objectives. These 
should be listed in the outline as well. It might be suitable to 
include a variety from which students can make choices. 

An essential part of the planning process will be the consideration 
and incorporation of evaluation procedures to be used. If these are 
understood before hand by both the teacher and the student, learning 
will be more effective and the assessment will be more satisfying. 
Further, evaluation procedures should relate directly to the 
objectives or purpose of the unit. 

Units should be developed to occupy a minimum of ten hours of 
classroom time. Anything less than this is not in the spirit of the 
program. 

The development of local units should be viewed as a long term 
process with the goal of providing students with a choice of units 
suited to their needs and interests. While some students may do only 
one such unit at each level it is useful and satisfying to have a 
number of outlines available to them for selection. The outlines included 
in this guide illustrate a variety of formats that can be used. 

The following list of topics is included to give an indication 
of the variety that is possible and to spark ideas in the minds of 
those teachers who wish to develop their own units. 

1. Navigation 

2. Meteorology 

3. Convection Currents 

4. Accel erometers 

5. The Physics of Diving 

6. Perpetual Motion Machines 

7. Collisions 

8. Reactions and Propulsion 

9. Heat Engines 
10. Insulation 



n. 


Energy Transfer Devices and Systems 


12. 


Friction Experiments 


13. 


Energy Storage 


14. 


Advanced Reading on . . . 


15. 


The Physics of Body Fluids 


16. 


The Outer Planets 


17. 


Mechanized Oscillators 


18. 


Physics of Vision 


19. 


Color 


20. 


Physics of Music 


21. 


History of Communication 


22. 


History of Wave Theory 


23. 


Microwaves 


24. 


Lasers 


25. 


Geophysical Viaves 


26. 


Astrophysics 


27. 


Electronic Device 


28. 


Elementary Particles 


29. 


The Future of Physics 


30. 


Semiconductors 


31. 


Radiation 


32. 


Fields 


33. 


Wave and Particle Duality 


34. 


Spectra 


Evaluation 



In addition to the comments in the previous section, it should be 
emphasized that evaluation procedures focus on all objectives of the 
physics program (see below). While this will prove difficult in some 
instances, teachers will want to be on the lookout for evidence of growth 
in "subjective" as well as "objective" areas of development. Evaluation 
should be thought of in a much wider frame of reference than "testing". 
It is the collecting of evidence which will enable teachers to answer 
with confidence, any questions which may be asked about a students' 
development. 

Objectives of Secondary School Science 

The learning of science, as an area of human endeavour, should provide 
he student with a scientific literacy which enables him to assume an active and 
seful role as a citizen in a democratic society. It may be assumed that this 
iteracy is best achieved by considering the individual needs of students and 
hrough independent study and learning. 

Specifically, the following objectives must be achieved in the Secondary 
chool Science: 

1. To promote an understanding of the role that science has had in the 
evelopment of societies: 

a. history and philosophy of science as part of human history and 
philosophy 

b. interaction of science and technology 

c. effect of science on health, population growth and distribution, 
development of resources, communication and transportation, etc. 



2. To promote an awareness of the humanistic implications of 
science: 

a. moral and ethical problems in the use and misuse of science 

b. science for leisure-time activities 

3. To develop a critical understanding of those current social 
problems which have a significant scientific component in terms of their 
cause and/or their solution: 

a. depletion of natural resources 

b. pollution of water and air 

c. over-population 

d. improper use of chemicals 

e. science for the consumer 



4. To promote understanding of and development of skill in 
the methods used by scientists: 

a. processes in scientific inquiry sucy as observing, 

hypothesizing, classifying, experimenting and interpreting 

data 

intellectual abilities such as intuition, rational 

thinking, creativity, and critical thinking 

skills such as manipulation of materials, communication, 

solving problems in groups, and leadership. 



b. 



c. 



5. To promote assimilation of scientific knowledge: 

a. emphasis on fundamental ideas 

b. relevance of scientific knowledge through inclusion of 
practical applications 

c. application of mathematics in science 

d. interrelationships between the sciences 

e. open-endedness of science and the tentativeness of 
scientific knowledge. 

6. To develop attitudes, interests, values, appreciations, and 
adjustments similar to those exhibited by scientists at work, 

7. To contribute to the development of vocational knowledge 
and skill : 

a. science as a vocation 

b. science as background to technical, professional and 
other vocations. 



Objectives of the High School Physics Program 

A study of physics should provide students with a critical view of 
ature and demonstrate an understanding of its human origin and development, 
urthermore, it should contribute to the scientific literacy of students 
that they may benefit the general welfare of society. 

To achieve these goals, the following objectives should be allowed 
develop according to the specific needs of students. 

1. To promote a knowledge of the general concepts of physics 

t each learning level as outlined in the program of studies for Alberta 
igh School Physics. 

2. To develop those attitudes and skills of physics which are 
pecifically associated with the process of scientific inquiry. 

3. To promote the historical basis of physics as a science, 

ts dependence on human activity and its influence on the development of 
ociety. 

4. To develop an interest in physics as a natural science, an 
ppreciation for improving natural knowledge and an understanding of the 
pipact of its technological development. 

5. To develop those aspects of a study of physics which contri- 
ute to meeting individual vocational needs and intellectual interests. 



Summary of The Secondary Physics Program 

The basic program is outlined in the Program of Studies. The following 
chart provides an overall view of major topics of the core and elective topics. 



ELECTIVES 


10.1 


Motion in the 
Heavens I 






10.2 


Motion in the 
Heavens II 






10.3 


Cosmology 






10.4 


Fluids at Rest 



CORE 
PHYSICS 10 



ELECTIVES 




Science and 
Scientists 



Space 
Explorations 



Experimental 
Studies of 
Motion 



10.8 



A Locally 
Developed Unit 



PHYSICS 20 



20.1 Kinetic Theory 
of Matter I 



\ 



20.2 ISound 
20.3 



Energy Resources, 
Energy crisis, 
Energy Conservation 



Conservation Laws. 
Nature and propagation of 
Waves. 



20.5 Physics of the 
Environment 



— 20.6 [Simple Machim 

\^ ^ 20.7 



\ 



\ 



Physics and 
Personal Safet 



20.4 



Heat, Calo rime try 
and Thermal 
Expansion 



'20.8 



A Locally 
Developed Unit 



PHYSICS 30 



30.1 

30.2 
30.3 

30.4 
30.5 
30.6 



Geometric Optics 



Optical Instruments 



The Kinetic Theory 
of Matter II 



The Special Theory 
of Relativity 



Nature and Behavior 
of Light, Electric and 
Magnetic Fields, 
Electromagnetic Radiation, 
Structure of Matter, 
Modern Physical Theories. 



^ 



/ 



30.7 



y 



Vectors and 
Equilibrium 



^30.8 



Meters, Motors 
and Generators 



^30.9 



The Speed of 
Light 



\ 



/ 



\ 



\ 



\ 



\ 



30.10 jTrajectories a 
Orbits 



Alternating Current 



/ 



\ 



/ 



\ 



30.11 



N 



Electrical Circuits 



\ 



"Pictures of a 
Megajoule" 



\ 



30.12 



A Locally 
Developed Unil 



PHYSICS 

10 



Physics 10 
Core 



PHYSICS 10 
(3 Credits) 

Objectives of the Physics 10 Pr o^rariK 
The student should: 

10 1 Demonstrate knowledge of the general concepts of physics which provide the 
basis for understanding natural phenomena. 

10.2 Develop an understanding of interactions among physical systems. 

10.3 Develop attitudes and skills associated with the processes of physics 
necessary for scientific inquiry. 

10 4 Develop an awareness of the humanistic implications of physics. 

10.5 Become aware of the impact that physics has had on the development of society. 

10.6 Develop an interest in physics as a science and appreciate its close 
association with the other sciences. 

Organization of Program 

ADoroximately 40 hours of instructional time shall be devoted to the core topics 
fnd approximately 25 hours to elective topics. Content of elective units is to 
relate to the core in one of three ways. 

a. an extension of a core topic 

b. an in-depth, intensive study of a core topic 

c. a practical application of a core topic 

Introduction 

The Phvsics 10 program is designed to show how the concepts of motion_ 
developed by ihe early natural philosophers related to the cultures of their 
time ^There i more than a close similarity between the viewof nature as 
expressed by Aristotle and the outlook of many students entering physics 
classes at the high school level. 

The curriculum alternates between a developmental approach and a conceptual 
appro ch in an attempt to provide for a humanistic blend P^^sen he 
concepts and subconcepts of physics from the beginning o^^^^^/^^^^^^l" bv Newton 
the nature of things up to the description of the 'quantity of ^°^ion by Newton 
Most of the concepts are accompanied by a series of activities ^^^^J^/. J'^^^^^t 
may use. The nature and intent of the activity are described, followed by a list 
^available resources. It is not necessary that students do all ^f the 
suggested activities. It is expected that teachers will rely on their own 
background in making the decisions regarding the methods [J^^f ,^°;1^^^^^J%^"^ 
develop the various concepts. A suggested time in hours ^as been allotted to 
each subconcept. Actual time may vary considerably dependent on local situations. 

Note the list of references which follows this outline. They are useful 
but not necessary to the development of this unit. 
Prescribed Core Reference 
Paul Douglas; Denny PeiVce, and Kenneth Stief. Ph^^sjcsiA Human Endeavour. 

' unit I Motion . Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and Winston of Canada, 
Limited, 1976. 



10 



CONCEPTS AND SUBCONCEPTS 



PHYSICS 10 
CORE 

TIME 

1/2^ 



Mo.l An attempt to define 

physics and physicists. 

Mo. 1.1 Physics is the study of 

interaction between energy 
and matter. 

10.1.2 Physicists are people who 
ask questions of nature 
while interacting with the 
society in which they live. 



1/3 



10.2 An attempt to understand nature 
beginning with the early Greek 
civil ization. 

10.2.1 The works and teachings of 
Aristotle formed the basis 
of ancient science. 



2/3 



SUGGESTED ACTIV ITIES ^ 

Students should be reminded that 
laboratory reports should be a 
complete and clear record of what 
happened. Answers to any questions 
in the handbooks are definitely a 
part of helping to understand the 
experiment. A complete record 
should include the object, 
apparatus, procedure, observations, 
results and conclusion 
PHE 1 p. 101 ) 



Investigations of several physical 
events which students attempt to 
describe and understand. 



Exp. 
Exp. 
Read 
Read 
Read 



Some Puzzling Events 
PHE 1.1 p. 101 

Naked Eye Astronomy 
PP 1-1 p. 134 



'( 



Ideas and Discoveries in PhySj 
LPT p. 1-16 

The Value of Science 
PPR 1 p. 1 

Becoming a Physicist 
PPR 1 p. 133 



Studies of literary works, musical 
themes, art forms, etc., in which 
science or scientists play an 
essential part. 



Investigation of the motion of 
objects falling in water and in 
other media. 



Exp. Falling Objects 
PHE 1.2 p. 



104 



Numbered statements beginning with 10 relate directly to Program of Study statements. 

Times are suggestions only and are given in hours. 

More activities are suggested than can be done in the time allotted to the core. 

Teachers should chose the ones which best meet their requirements and should not 

feel restricted to those listed. 

A key to abbreviations is found on p. 149 



11 



A. There were four 
fundamental 
elements: Earth, 
Air, Fire and 
Water. 

B. Each of the four 
elements had a 
natural place. 

C. The stars, planets 
and other celestial 
bodies differed 
fundamentally in 
composition and 
behaviour from 
objects on or 

near the Earth. 

D. All motions in the 
physical world 
occurred in order 
to preserve the 
general order of 
the universe. 

10.2.2 The Aristotelians 
believed in two types 
of motion on the Earth. 

A. Natural motion 
was exhibited by 
any body moving 
freely to its 
natural place. 

B. Violent motion 
occurred when an 
object was forced 
to move by some 
outside object. 

10.2.3 The teachings of 
Aristotle were 
accepted into the 
Christian doctrine 
by the time of the 
16th Century. 

A. Aristotle's ideas 
were lost to the 
Latin world for 
a long time. 



Exp. Fluid Friction In a Viscous 
Medium 
N II 48 p. 104 

Dem. Fluid Friction and Terminal 
Velocity 
N IV 14 p. 22 



1/3 



Generation of hypotheses in response 
to the question of how objects move. 

Exp. How A Scientist Learns 
SH 1 p. LI 



1/3 



Demonstrations of force and motion 
interactions which agree with 
Aristotle's theories. 

Dem. Frictional Forces (Solids) 
N II - 44 p. 97 



12 



B. During the 
Crusades of the 
thirteenth century 
the works of 
Aristotle were 
recovered from 
Arabic and 

Greek manuscripts. 

C. Thomas Aquinas 
established 
Aristotle as the 
major authority 
in scientific and 
phi losophical 
matters. 

10.2.4 It was difficult to 
refute the teachings 
of Aristotle from the 
16th Century 
perspective. 

A. Aristotle's theories 
agreed with much of 
human experience. 

B. Aristotle's 
thinking in other 
areas of science 
was treated with 
great respect and 
influenced all 
scholars. 

C. Galileo showed 
how to study the 
simple motion of 
particles under 
controlled 
conditions and to 
describe their 
behavior 
mathematically. 

10.3 The Physicist often uses the 
language of mathematics to 
describe natural phenomena. 

10.3.1 The world is filled 
with things in 
motion. 

A. The motions that 
we observe in our 
environment are 
\/ery complex. 



I 



2/3 



Investigations designed to illustra 
methods of controlling conditions. 

Exp. Regularity and Time 
PP 1-2 p. 142 

Exp. Short Time Intervals 
PSSC 1.1 p. 

Act. Making Frictionless Pucks 
PP 1 p. 151 

Dem. Frictionless Motion 
N III 54 p. 154 
N IV 15 p. 24 

Exp. Time Intervals With the Vibra 
N III 44 p. 180 

Exp. Number of Ticks in 3 seconds 
N III 45 p. 181 



te 



i 



tor 



2/3 



Activities which will illustrate the 
use of a vibrator and tape to 
analyse motion. 

Dem. Introduction to Measuring 
Motion 
N III 46 p. 182 

Exp. Measuring the Pupil's Own Motion 
N III 47 p. 183 



13 



B. A study of simple 
motion leads to an 
understanding of 
more complex forms 
of motion. 

C. Mathematics can be 
used to describe 
some simple forms 
of motion. 

10.3.2 The simplest motion is 
an object travelling at 
constant speed in a 
straight line. 

A. An equation 
relating distance 
travelled to the 
corresponding 
time interval is 
often the most 
practical method 
of describing 
simple motion. 

B. Another useful way 
to describe 
motion is in the 
form of a graph. 

C. The slope of the 
graph line from 
a distance-time 
graph for an 
object in uniform 
motion can be used 
to represent the 
speed of the object. 

10.3.3 Another useful method 
of describing motion 
graphically is to 
relate the speed of an 
object to a correspond- 
ing time interval . 

10.3.4 Most objects do not 
travel at constant 
speed; they change 
their speed during 
successive time 
intervals. 



Experiments which illustrate uniform 
motion by measuring distances 
travelled and corresponding elapsed 
time. 

Exp. Uniform Motion 
PHE 2.1 p. 105 

Exp. Measuring Uniform Motion 
PP 1-4 p. 145 

Act. The Path of a Perseid Meteor 
PHE 2.5 p. 116 



1/3 



2/3 



Graphical description of distance 
travelled related to area under 
the curve. 



Analyze accelerated motion using the 
same definitions of distance 
travelled and average speed developed 
for uniform motion. 



14 



10.3.5 



A. Acceleration is 
defined as the 
rate of change of 
speed. 

B. Uniformly 
accelerated motion 
is a motion in 
which an object 
changes its speed 
at a constant 
rate. 

A speed-time graph may 
be used to describe 
uniform acceleration. 



A. The slope of the 
line on a speed- 
time graph of an 
object accelerating 
uniformly equals 
the acceleration. 

B. The area under the 
line on a speed- 
time graph for an 
uniformly 

accelerating object 
equals the distance 
travelled during 
the time-interval . 

10.3.6 An analysis of a 

distance-time graph for 
uniformly accelerated 
motion may be used to 
describe both 
instantaneous and 
average speed. 

A. The slope of 
tangents to the 
curve of a distance- 
time graph is equal 
to the instantaneous 
speed at a given 
time. 

B. Average speed during 
a time-interval is 
defined as the total 
distance travelled 
divided by the 

time taken. 



2/3 



2/3 



Exp. Accelerated Motion 
PHE 2.2 p. 108 

Exp. Motion: Velocity and 
Acceleration 
PSSC 1.5 p. 



Experiments which illustrate the 
relationships between the variables 
of a speed-time graph and 
acceleration. 

Exp. Motion of a Wheel 
PHE 2.3 p. 110 

Act. Road Test of a Mercedes Benz 
PHE 2.1 p. 113 

Act. Doing Your Own Road Test 
PHE 2.2 p. 113 

Act. Analysis of a Race 
PHE 2.3 p. 113 

Act. Making a DC Blinky 
PHE 2.4 p. 115 



Student involvement in designing 
their own experiments to measure 
average speeds of various systems. 

Act. Your Own Motion Experiment 
PHE 2.6 p. 117 

Descriptions of actual events which 
can be analyzed in terms of motion 
studies. 



Act. Monitoring a Car's Performance 
PHE 2.7 p. 117 



15 



10.3.7 To more completely 1 1/3 
describe uniform 
acceleration 
additional algebraic 
equations must be 
developed. 

A. An analysis of the 
area under the 
curve of a speed- 
time graph 
produces equations 
for the 

determination of the 
distance travelled 
by an object. 

10.4 Scientists of the 16th 

Century developed new insights 
and techniques which could 
be used to describe motion 
in the natural world. 



Graphical analysis of speed-time 
graphs to develop the relationship 
which determines the distance 
travelled by an object. 



10.4.1 The sixteenth century 
was a period of 
remarkably vigorous 
creativity and 
achievement in many 
fields, including 
science. 

A. The attitude 
necessary for the 
growth of science; 
a faith in an 
orderly natural 
world which could 
be understood by 
man, was supported 
by 16th Century 
scientists. 

B. An understanding of 
the nature of the 
revolution in 
science during the 
16th Century is 
helped by studying 
the work of Gal ileo. 

10.4.2 Galileo developed a new 
approach to the science 
of motion in his book 
Two New Sciences which 
altered both the 
medieval theory of 
mechanics and the 
Aristotelian cosmology. 



2/3 



Studies of the changes in the 
direction of scientific thought 
during the 16th and 17th centuries 
and their effect on society. 

Read The Scientific Revolution 
RPR 1 p. 101 

Read How the Scientific Revolution 
of the Seventeenth Century 
Affected Other Branches of 
Thought. 
PPR 1 p. 109 



New Sciences 



A modern edition of Two 

translated by Crew and De Salvio 
published by Dover Publications. 



IS 



Act, 



Work On 
SH 1.1 



Your Own 
p. 24 



16 



10.4.3. 



A. Gal ileo presented 
thought experiments - 
an analysis of what 
would happen in an 
imaginary experiment - 
to attack Aristotle's 
theory of motion. 

B. An important principle 
revealed by Galileo 
was that in a careful 
observation of a 
common natural event 
the observer's 
attention may be 
distracted from a 
fundamental 
regularity unless he 
considers variations 
associated with the 
event. 

C. To overthrow the 
firmly established 
doctrine of 
Aristotle required 
Galileo's combination 
of mathematical 
talent, experimental 
skill , literary style, 
and tireless 
campaigning. 

One of the first 1/3 

motions studied was 
freely falling bodies. 

A. Galileo's approach 
to the problems of 
motion illustrates 
the strategies of 
inquiry used in 
science. 



10.4.4 



Galileo used logical 
analysis to develop the 
definition of motion, 

A. A motion is said 
to be uniformly 
accelerated when 
starting from rest, 
if it acquires 
during equal time 
intervals, equal 
increments of speed 



2/3 



Demonstrations of common events 
which can be viewed from a more 
idealistic point of view where 
variations have been eliminated. 

Act. The Importance of Air 
Resistance 
PHE 3.5 p. 127 

Act. Dime and Feather Tube 
PHE 3.3 p. 126 

Act. When is Air Resistance 
Important 
PP 2 p. 163 

Act. Egg Drop Contest 
PHE 3.4 p. 127 



Emphasis on the change in thinking 
from a common sense approach to a 
more "idealistic" theoretical 
approach. 



Activities which lead the students 
to explain the scientific reasoning 
behind Galileo's acceleration 
hypothesis. 

Act. A Motion Puzzle 
PHE 3.1 p. 126 



17 



10.4.5 Galileo could not 2/3 
test his 

acceleration 
hypotheses directly. 

A. It is yery 
difficult to 
make direct 
measurements of 
the time taken 
for an object 
to fall to the 
ground. 

10.4.6 The inability to make 2/3 
direct measurements 

of the acceleration 
of a falling object 
caused Galileo to 
use a mathematical 
relationship. 

A. Galileo proposed 
that if an object 
accelerates 
uniformly from 
rest, the ratio 
d/T^ should be 
a constant. 

10.4.7 Galileo suggested that 1 1/3 
for a ball released 

from rest and rolling 
different distances 
down an inclined plane 
the ratio d/T^ is a 
constant. 

A. Galileo described 
an experiment with 
such clarity that 
it may be repeated 
by those who follow 
him. 

B. Galileo reasoned 
that if the ratio 
d/T^ is constant 
for many angles of 
inclination then 
d/T^ is also 
constant for a 
falling object. 



Reaction time experiments which 
reveal the difficulty of timing 
events of short duration. 

Act. Measuring Human Reaction Time 
PHE 3.2 p. 126 



Illustrations of the proposition that 
"the spaces passed over are in 
proportion to the square of the 
times." 

Act. Falling Weight 
PHE 3.6 p. 127 



Inclined plane experiments using 
various timing methods. 

Exp. Galileo's Inclined Plane 
PHE 3.1 p. 119 

Exp. A Seventeenth Century 
Experiment 
PP 1-5 p. 153 

Exp. A Modern Version of Galileo's 
Inclined Plane 
PHE 3.2 p. 121 

Exp. Twentieth Century Version of 
Galileo's Experiment 
PP 1-6 p. 156 

Exp. Diluted Gravity Experiment 
N III 49 p. 186 



10.4.8 Galileo's procedure 1 1/3 
is open to question. 

A. Was Galileo's 
measurement of 
time accurate 
enough to 
establish the 
constancy of 
d/T'? 

B. Was Galileo's 
extrapolation to 
larger and larger 
angles of incline 
too great for a 
cautious person 
to accept? 

C. Does the general 
law of acceleration 
apply to objects 
which slide rather 
than roll? 

10.4.9 Galileo's work 2/3 
produces a number of 
consequences. 

A. The acceleration of 
a body down a ramp 
is a constant. 

B. If spheres of 
different weights 
are allowed to 
roll down an 
inclined plane, they 
have the same 
acceleration. 

C. Galileo developed a 
mathematical theory 
of accelerated motion 
from which other 
predictions about 
motion can be 
developed. 

D. Gal ileo' s work 
prepared the way for 
the development of a 
new kind of physics 
and a new cosmology. 



Demonstration of 17th Century 
timing devices and a discussion of 
their relative accuracy. 

Discussion of graphing techniques 
and the technique of applying the 
concepts of interpolation and 
extrapolation. 

Demonstration of the acceleration 
rates of variously shaped particles. 



Studies of other accelerating systems 

Exp. The Period of a Pendulum 
SH 5 p. L16 



19 



10.4.10 Today's experimental 
equipment allows 
measurement of the 
actual acceleration 
of freely falling 
bodies. 

A. The average speed 
for an 

accelerated object 
can be used to 
determine the 
acceleration of 
the object. 



2/3 



Experiments conducted with free 
falling objects using more direct 
methods than the inclined plane. 

Dem. Multi flash Photographs of 
Free Fall 

N IV 1 and 22 p. 1 
N IV 22 p. 40 

Dem. Multiflash Photographs of 
Motion Down an Incline 
N IV 20 p. 33 

Dem. Measurement of g using a 
Scaler As a Timer 
N IV 20 p. 33 

Exp. Measuring Acceleration Due to 
Gravity 
PHE 3.3 p. 122 

Exp. Measuring the Acceleration of 
Gravity 
PP 1-7 p. 158 

Act. Acceleration of Water Drop 
PHE 3.7 p. 127 

FL. Acceleration Due to Gravity 
PP LI p. 164 



10.5 A Study of motion must take 
into consideration the 
importance of direction. 

10.5.1 The topic of motion 
creates a number of 
fundamental questions 
concerning an 
object's pattern of 
motion, cause of 
motion, and 
relativity of motion. 

A. To describe motion 
one must choose 

a specific 
reference point. 

B. An object is 
described as being 
in motion with 
respect to an 
observer if a 1 ine 
joining the object 
to the observer 
changes in either 
length or direction. 



1 1/3 



Multi-media aids which illustrate 
relative motion and frames of 
references. 

FL. A Matter of Relative Motion 
PP L4 p. 187 

F. Frames of Reference 
PSSC 

Read Introducing Vectors 
PPR 1 p. 60 



20 



10.5.2 Some of the terminology 1 1/3 
developed to describe 

simple motion in one 
direction is inadequate 
to completely describe 
the motion of an object. 

A. Physicists use the 
term displacement 
to describe the 
change in position 
of an object. 

B. Velocity is a term 
used to describe 
the rate of change 
of position of an 
object. 

10.5.3 The behavior of an 1 1/3 
object can be 

graphically described 
by using the established 
sign convention. 

A. The direction of 
motion is shown on 
a velocity time 
graph. 

B. The slope of the 
graph may be used 
to show whether the 
object is speeding 
up or slowing down. 

C. The numerical value 
of the area under the 
line on a speed-time 
graph equals the 
numerical value of 
the distance 
travelled during the 
time interval . 

10.5.4 The algebraic equations 2/3 
developed for scalar 

motion are able to 
describe more 
complicated forms of 
motion 

A. Graphs and equations 
describe the motion 
of an object moving 
in one direction 
experiencing a 
constant acceleration 
in the opposite 
direction. 



Experiments which study the motion 
of objects whose direction of 
motion changes. 

Exp. Motion and Direction 
PHE 4.1 p. 129 



Graphical analysis of an accelerated 
object. 



Importance of the connection 
between a graphical analysis of 
accelerated motion and the more 
abstract mathematical analysis. 



21 



10.5.5 The terms displacement, 
velocity, and 
acceleration can also 
be used to describe 
the motion of an object 
on a surface. 

A. Vector quantities 
are added together 
to obtain a 

resul tant. 

B. The addition of 
vectors must take 
into consideration 
the direction of 
motion. 

10.6 Newton described motion in 
terms of the presence or 
absence of natural forces. 

10.6.1 The environment 

influences the motion 
of an object. 



1 1/3 



2/3 



A. Dynamics goes 
beyond kinematics 
by taking into 
account the cause 
of motion. 

B. Rest, uniform motion , 
and acceleration are 
phenomena related 
through the study 

of dynamics. 

10.6.2 Forces are vector 1/3 
quantities. 

A. An understanding of 
force is required 
in a study of the 
cause of motion. 

B. The effect of a 
force depends on 
both its magnitude 
and its direction. 

10.6.3 Force vectors acting in 1 1/3 
opposing directions 

require a sign 
convention. 

A. The resultant force 
or net force applied 
to an object is the 
vector sum of the 
forces. 



Multi -media aids which illustrate 
the use of vectors in determining 
the direction of motion. 



FL 



FL, 



Galilean Relativity: Ball 
Dropped From Mast of Ship 
PP L5 p. 188 



Vector Addition: 

a Boat. 

PP L3 p. 174 



Velocity of 



Emphasis on how dynamics differ 
from kinematics and the relationship 
between these two concepts. 



Establishing the idea that forces 
can make things move and can hold 
things still . 



Read 



Forces 
LPT p, 



6-12 



Experiments which illustrate the 
condition necessary for equilibrium. 

Exp. Balancing Forces 
PHE 5.4 p. 136 



22 



10.6.4 Another way to solve 2/3 
problems is to 

represent certain 
quantities by arrows 
called vectors. 

A. The rule for 
vector addition 
allows for 
vectors to be 
added in any 
order. 

10.6.5 The analysis of motion 1 1/3 
is based on Newton's 

first law of motion; 
the law of inertia. 

A. Galileo proposed 

a thought experiment 
which led to 
Newton's statement 
of the first law of 
motion. 

B. Newton developed 
Galileo's reasoning 
and formally stated 
the explanation of 
motion with uniform 
velocity. 

C. Objects moving with 
uniform velocity 
are said to be 
isolated. 

D. Inertia describes 
a property of all 
objects. 



10.6.6 It is difficult to 1/3 
experimentally verify 
the principle of 
inertia. 

A. Newton and Galileo 
described a straight 
line in different 
ways . 

B. The first law of 
motion provides us 
with some important 
insights about 
motion. 



Graphical construction with arrows 
to predict whether forces balance 
or whether any net force is left 
over. 



Demonstration of some simple 
phenomena which can be explained 
using either an Aristotelian or 
Galilean-Newtonian point of view. 



Dem. 



Dem. 



Dem, 



Act. 



Act. 



Read 



Read 



Galileo's Experiment With A 

Rolling Ball 

N III 53a p. 192 

Inertia: Two Tin-Can 

Pendulums 

N 56 and N IV 24 p. 44 

Illustration of Newton's 
First Law: Balancing Forces 
Without Friction 
N IV 17a p. 28 

N IV 17b p. 29 

Inertia Demonstrations 
PHE 5.1 - 5.4 p. 138-139 

Pulls and Jerks 
PP 3 p. 170 

Newton and the Principia 
PPR 2 p. 68 



Galileo's Discussion of 
Projectile Motion 
PPR 1 p. 72 

Treatment of inertia as a term which 
can be used to help discuss something 
actually observed in nature. 



23 



10.6.7 



C. No net forces are 
acting on isolated 
(moving) bodies. 

Mass is a fundamental 
property of matter. 



1/3 



A. Mass is a measure 
of the inertia of 
a body. 

B. A unit with which 
to measure mass 
can be selected 
from some 
convenient object. 

10.6.8 Newton's second law of 'c 
motion describes motion 
which results when a 
body does not move 
uniformly. 

A. A constant 
unbalanced force 
acting on a body 
produces a constant 
acceleration in the 
direction of the 
force. 

B. The acceleration 
produced on a given 
body varies directly 
with the unbalanced 
force. 

C. The acceleration 
produced on a given 
body varies inversely 
with the mass of the 
object. 

D. The second law of 
motion is the 
fundamental definition 
in Newtonian mechanics, 



Discussion of conceptual mass unit 
and standard mass unit. 

Read Gravity Experiments 
PPR 2 p. 128 

Read Negative Mass 
PPR 2 p. 197 



Investigations to observe the 
behavior of objects in terms of 
force, mass and acceleration. 

Exp. Newton's Second Law 
PP 1-8 p. 166 

Exp. Changes in Velicty With A 
Constant Force. 
PSSC, 3rd p. 1 

Exp. Investigation Acceleration With 
Trol leys 

N III 58 p. 204 
N IV 12 p. 18 

Exp. The Dependence of Acceleration 
On Force and Mass 
PSSC, 3rd p. 

Exp. Effect on Acceleration of 

Changing The Mass of a Trolley 
N III 59 p. 208 
N IV 11 p. 

Exp. Acceleration Which Is Not Constant 

N IV 5 p. 5 

Exp. Quantitative Experiments on 
Acceleration 
N IV 7 p. 8 

Act. Ballistics Cart 
PHE 5.5 p. 139 

Act. Accel erometer 

PHE 5.6 p. 139 

Act. Design Your Own Accelerometer 
PHE 5.7 p. 140 

Act. Automobile Accelerometer 
PP 3 p. 172 



24 



10.6.9 



The newton 
of force. 



is a unit 



10.6.10 



1 1/3 



10.6.11 



A. The newton is a 
derived unit 
of force which 
has been defined 
in terms of 
the fundamental 
units in the 
MKS system. 



Newton's third law 
points out a different 
observation about 
forces. 

A. Interaction occurs 
when two or more 
objects exert 
forces upon one 
another. 

B. Whenever one 
body accelerates, 
another body causes 
that acceleration; 
the effect is mutual, 

C. Newton's third law 
is a statement 
about forces without 
regard to the 
motion of bodies. 



1 1/3 



Mass and weight are 
terms which represent 
difference concepts. 

A. The weight of a 

body is equal to the 
magnitude of 
gravitational 
force acting on it. 



1 1/3 



Act. Damped Pendulum Accel erometer 
PP 3 p. 

Act. Large Trolley Experiments On 
Acceleration 
N III 60a p. 210 

Read Mass In Motion 
LPT p. 4-6 

Derivation of the newton as a force 
unit from observing the motion of an 
object under the influence of an 
unbalanced force. 

Exp. Newton's Second Law 
PHE 5.2 p. 132 

Exp. Force and Acceleration 
SH 8 p. L25 

Dem. Test of Newton Balance by 
Pul ling Trolley 
N IV 33a p. 65 

Comparison of the motions of two 
interacting masses to attempt to 
confirm Newton's Third Law of Motion. 

Exp. An Explosion 

PHE 5.3 p. 134 

Exp. Collisions in One Dimension 
PP 3-1 p. 3/4 

Exp. Momentum Changes in an Explosion 
PSSC 3 ed. 7 p. 

Exp. The Cart and The Brick 
PSSC 3rd ed. 8 p. 

Act. An Action - Reaction Car 
PHE 5.9 p. 140 

Act. Action and Reaction Trolleys 
N III 62 p. 217 

Dem. Rockets 

NF IV 23 p. 42 

Read The Laws of Motion and 
Proposition One 
PPR 2 p. 74 

Experiments which illustrate the 
difference between gravitational and 
inertial mass. 

Exp. Mass and Weight 
PP 1-9 p. 169 

Exp. Weight and Mass 
SH 7 p. L22 



25 



The mass of a 
body is a measure 
of its inertia. 



10.6.12 Physical principles 
may be applied to 
situations where 
there is an apparent 
loss of weight. 

A. An analysis of 
the effect of an 
accelerating 
elevator on a 
scale can be 
used to illustrate 
an apparent 
loss of weight. 



2/3 



Exp. Inertial and Gravitational Mass 
PSSC III - 3 p. 

Exp. The Inertia Balance 
NF IV 27 p. 48 

Dem. Comparison of Two 1 -Kilogram 
Masses of the Same Substance 
N IV 30 p. 58 

Dem. Comparison of Two 1 -Kilogram 
Masses of Different Substances 
N IV 31 p. 60 

Illustrations of situations where 
there is an apparent loss of weight. 

Act, 



Act, 



Free Fall and Weightlessness 
PHE 5.8 p. 140 



Do 
SH 



It Now 
2.2 p. 



35 



References 

Haber-Schaim, Uri , et al . PSSC Physics , third ed. 

Lexington, Massachusetts: D.C. Heath and Co., 1971. 

Lewis, John L., (ed.) Longman's Physics Topics 
London: The Longman Group, 1970. 

Nuffield Foundation. Nuffield Physics - Guide to Experiments II, III, IV. 
London: The Longman Group, 1967. 

Nuffield Foundation. Nuffield Physics - Teacher's Guide II, III, IV 
London: The Longman Group, 1967. 

Paul, Douglas; Denny Peirce, and Kenneth Stief, Physics: A Human Endeavour. Unit I 
Motion 
Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and Winston of Canada, Limited, 1976. 

Physical Science Study Committee. Physics second ed. 

Vancouver: The Copp Clark Publishing Co., Ltd., 1965. 

Physical Science Study Committee. Physics second ed. Laboratory Guide 
Vancouver: The Copp Clark Publishing Co. Ltd., 1965 



26 



Rutherford, F. James, et al . Project Physics. Unit I - Concepts of Motion 
Text and Handbook. New York: Rinehart and Winston, Inc. 1975. 

Rutherford, F. James, et al. Project Physics Reader. Unit I - Concepts of 
Motion 

New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1975. 

Rutherford, F. James, et al . Project Physics Reader. Unit 2 - Motion in the 
Heavens. 

New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1975. 

Rutherford, F, James, et al. Project Physics Resource Book. 

New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. 1975. 

Stollberg, Robert, Faith Fitch Hill, and Marvin H. Nygaard. Fundamentals of 
Physics . 

Canadian ed, Don Mills: Thomas Nelson & Sons (Canada) Ltd., 1968. 



Physics 10 
Electives 



27 



PHYSICS 10 
ELECTIVE 

10.1 MOTION IN THE HEAVENS I - ANCI ENT TO GALILEO 

10.1.1 General Objective s 

A. To study the development of the oldest branch of physics as a 
part of human historical development. 

B. To study the historical development of scientific skills such 
as observing, hypothesizing, theorizing and experimenting. 

C. To develop an interest in physics as it relates to the universe 
at large. 

D. To develop the ability to carry out simple experiments independently. 

10.1.2 Concepts and Activities 

A. Motions of the Heavenly Objects 

1. Identify major constellations on a star chart or stellar globe. 

2. Give the position and names of the major planets visible at 
the particular time when this elective is taken. 

3. Describe the regularities in the motions of the sun, moon, stars, 
planets, comets, etc. 

4. Naked Eye Observations 
PHE 6.1 p. 91 

5. Using a gnomon, plot the path of the sun for one day 
PHE 6.2 p. 94 

6. Build a celestial globe. 
PHE 6.3, 6.4 p. 110 

7. Construct a sundial 
PHE 6.5 p. Ill 

8. Make a meteor count for one hour on two different evenings 
PHE 6.6 p. Ill 

9. Build an astrolabe* 

PHE 6.1 p. 109 

B. The Greek Models of the Universe 

1. Outline the different Greek models of the universe: 

a. Pythagorean - number and astronomy 

b. Eudoxus - circular motion with earth as center of the 
universe 

c. Aristarchus - the sun at the center (?) 

d. Ptolemy - an accurate model of the universe. 



28 



2. Be able to defend the position that the geocentric model 
of the universe was far more useful to the Greeks than 
the heliocentric model. What does this imply about 
scientific truth? 

3. Construct models of the five Platonic solids 
PHE 8.2 p. 132 

C. The Copernican Revolution 

1. Describe the shift in human thinking required by the 
Copernican Revolution. 

2. Outline the successes and shortcomings of the Copernican 
Model . 

3. From data on the sun's position in the sky, construct the 
orbit of the earth. 

PHE 7.1 p. 115 

4. Study the motion of a moving pendulum on a rotating turntable. 
Can you suggest an experiment to demonstrate the earth's 
rotation from this? 

5. Read. The Origins of the Copernican Revolution 
SA Oct. 1967 

D. Kepler and Galileo: The Earth Really Moves 

1. Observe (telescope, binoculars) the surface of the moon 
and note similarities to earth's surface. 

2. Describe how the motion of Jupiter's moons provides indirect 
evidence for the earth's motion. 

3. Construct the orbit of Mars or Mercury from observational data 
PHE 8.1, 8.2, 8.3 p. 121 - 126 

4. Show how Jupiter's satellites obey Kepler's three laws. 
NT V p. 202 

5. Read the play Galileo by Berthold Brecht. 

6. Read How did Kepler Discover His First Two Laws - 
(SA March 1972.) 



10.1.3 Reference 



Paul, Douglas; Denny Peirce, and Kenneth Stief. Physics: A Human 

Endeavour: Unit 2 Motion in the Heavens 
Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and Winston of Canada, Limited, 1976. 

The Shape of The Earth's Orbit 

The Shape of Mar's Orbit 

(These are books of photographs which can be used to plot orbits 
They are available from science equipment suppliers such as 
Boreal Laboratories Ltd. or McAllister Scientific, etc.) 



29 



PHYSICS 10 
ELECTIVE 

10.2 MOTION IN THE HEAVENS II - NEWTON TO EINSTEIN 

10.2.1 General Objectives 

A. To study the effect of the first major physical theory of motiot, 
on science and human society. 

B. To recognize the universality of physical laws. 

C. To show the interplay of theory and experiment as a model for the 
advancement of science. 

D. To study the interrelationship of mathematics and physics. 

E. To develop an appreciation for the methods and attitudes exhibited 
by scientists. 

NOTE: This elective is open-ended and should be attempted only by students 
who have considerable ability and initiative. 

10.2.2 Concepts and Activities 

A. The Newtonian Synthesis 

1. Describe how the force of gravity can be responsible for the 
laws of motion for falling bodies and for the motion of 
heavenly bodies. 

2. Describe the different types of orbit possible due to the 
gravitational force laws and give examples of heavenly bodies 
in the various orbits. 

3. Derive Keplers Third Law from Newton's gravitational law. 

4. Do some library research of pre-Newtonian ideas on the force 
necessary to keep planets in orbit (e.g. Kepler-magnetism, 
Descartes - vortices, etc.). 

5. Demonstrate with a pendulum how an inward force can lead to 
a circular or elliptical orbit (Robert Hooke) . 

6. Construct the circle, ellipse, parabola, hyperbola as sections 
of a cone (make a model). 

7. Research on ideas on what gravity really is. 

B. The Effect of Newton's Work on Astronomy 

1. Describe how faith in Newton's theory led Adams and Leverrier 
to predict a new planet. 

2. Describe how Cavendish "weighed the earth". 

3. Describe how modern concepts of gravity differ from those of 
Newton. 



30 



4. Read Gravity 
SA March, 1961 

5. Read The Eotvos Experiment 
SA December, 1961 



6. Do library research and prepare a short report on Einstein's 
theory of gravitation. 



10.2.3 Evaluation 



The evaluation of this elective should be based on the attainment of 
the objectives outlined above, and on the students own research on 
gravity. A verbal or oral report should probably form the major part 
of the students evaluation. 



10.2.4 References 



Paul, Douglas; Denny Peirce, and Kenneth Stief. Physics: A Human 
Endeavour: Unit 2 - Motion In The Heavens. 
Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and Winston of Canada, Limited, 1976. 

Nuffield Foundation. Nuffield Physics - Teacher's Guide V. 
London: The Longman Group, 1967. 

Rutherford, F. James, et al. Project Physics. Unit 2 - Motion In 
The Heavens . Text and Handbook. 
New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1975. 



31 



PHYSICS 10 
ELECTIVE 



10.3 COSMOLOGY 



CONCEPTS OF THE UNIVERSE FROM EARLY PERIOD TO NEWTONIAN ERA 



10.3.1 General Objectives 

A. Development of attitudes, interests, adjustments and appreciations 
similar to those exhibited by philosophers and scientists. 

B. Promote an awareness of the role that society has had in the 
development of an understanding of order in the universe. 

C. Promote an awareness of humanistic implications. 

D. Promote understanding of a development of skill in methods used 
by scientists with materials at hand. 

10.3.2 Concepts and Activities 

A. The student should be able to: 

1. Describe several cosmologies 

2. Describe change in cosmologies as they are affected by the 
physical and intellectual environment. 

3. Show the effects of successive scientific insights upon the 
cosmologies. This study can be divided into 



b. 



Early 


period 


i. 


India 


ii . 


Egypt 


i i i , 


Babylonian 


iv. 


Greek 


v. 


Christian 


vi . 


Renaissance 


vii . 


Incas? 


viii . 


Plains Indians? 


Copernican Revolution 


1 • 


Copernicus 


ii. 


Brahe 


i i i . 


Kepler 


iv. 


Galileo 


Newtor 


ian Era 


\ ^ 


Newton 


ii . 


Herschel 


i i i . 


Bessel 



32 



Activities 

a. The primary activity will be library research into the 
various cosmologies. 

b. Draw diagrams to represent the various cosmologies. 

c. Write a paper or give a verbal presentation of the ideas 
developed. 



10.3.3 Evaluation 



The level of achievement reached at the completion of this elective 
may be determined by submission of a paper, possibly accompanied by 
a verbal presentation, however, the evaluation should be weighted 
heavily on the student's research of the subject. 



10.3.4 References 



"Antimatter and Cosmology", Scientific American 
April, 1967 

Lowell and Magerison, "The Physical Universe" The Explosion of Science 
New York: Meredith Press. 

National Geographic 
May, 1974 

Paul, Douglas; Denny Peirce and Kenneth Stief. Physics: A Human 
Endeavour: Unit 2 Motion In The Heavens 
Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and Winston of Canada, Limited, 1976. 

Ronan, Colin A. Man Probes the Universe . 

Garden City, N.Y.: Natural History Press. 

Rutherford, F. James, et al . Project Physics Reader. Unit 2 - Motion 
in The Heavens. 
New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1975, 

The Universe . New York: Life Nature Library, Time Life Books 



33 



PHYSICS 10 
ELECTIVE 



10.4 FLUIDS AT REST 

10.4.1 General Objectives 

A. To show the relationship between science and technology. 

B. To promote understanding of and development of skill in the 
methods used by scientists. 

C. To promote assimilation of scientific knowledge. 

D. To show the historical beginnings of science. 

10.4.2 Con cepts 

A. Liquid Forces in Open Vessels 

1. Hydraulic devices transmit forces through liquids. Examples 
are the hydraulic lift and hydraulic brakes. 

2. The total force of a liquid on the bottom of a container is 
the volume times the density of the fluid. 

3. Pressure is force per unit area. 

4. The pressure exerted by a liquid is equal to the height times 
the density of the liquid. 

5. A Bourdon gauge measures pressure. 

6. Another type of pressure gauge is the open-tube manometer. 

7. The shape and size of a container have no effect on pressure. 

8. Pressure units used by engineers are expressed in head of 
water or water head. 

9. A body submerged in a liquid is lifted or buoyed up by the 
liquid. The apparent loss of weight equals the weight of the 
1 iquid displaced. 

10. Water pressure is proportional to depth and acts at right 
angles (perpendicular) to the walls of the container. 

11. The force exerted by a liquid on the side of its container 

is equal to the product of the height times the density times 
the area of the side divided by two. 

12. The face of a dam experiences a pressure and a force. 

B. Specific Gravity and Archimedes' Principle 

1. Specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of a substance 
to the weight of an equal volume of water. 

2. The apparent loss of weight of a totally or partially 
submerged body equals the weight of the liquid displaced. 
This is known as Archimedes' Principle. 



34 



3. The specific gravity of a floating body can be found 
using a sinker and the over-flow can method. 

4. The specific gravity of a liquid can be measured using 
a specific gravity bottle or pycnometer. 

5. The specific gravity of a liquid can be found by comparing 
the weight loss of a sinker in the liquid to the weight 
loss of the same sinker in water. 

6. A calibrated wooden stick can also be used to determine the 
specific gravity of a liquid. 

7. Density is defined as mass per unit volume. 

8. A body sinks completely in a liquid if its weight is more 
than the weight of liquid which it displaces. 

9. A body completely submerged in a liquid will neither sink 
further nor rise in a liquid if its weight equals that of 
the liquid which it displaces. 

10. A body submerged in a liquid will rise and float if its 
weight is less than that of the liquid which it displaces. 
Such a body shows buoyancy. 

11. When a body is placed in a liquid, it sinks if its density 
is greater than the density of the liquid, and it floats 
if its density is less than the density of the liquid. 

12. The principle of buoyancy is applied to the construction of 
ships, submarines, floating docks, balloons and airships. 

C. Hydraulic Machines 

1. A hydraulic jack can overcome a large resistance with a 
little effort. 

2. An apparently illogical situation is the hydrostatic paradox. 
Pascal solves the paradox. 

3. Pascal stated that when any part of a confined liquid is 
subjected to pressure, the pressure is transmitted equally 
and undiminished to every portion of the inner surface of 
the containing vessel. 

4. A hydraulic machine has a yery large mechanical advantage. 

5. Fluid is used to transmit force in an automatic transmission. 

6. Gravity often is used to maintain water pressure in homes. 
10.4.3 Activities 

A. Weigh yourself and compute the approximate volume of your body 
(assume your density equals that of fresh water). 

B. Make and explain a Cartesian diver. 

C. Determine the purity of some metal body. 

D. Place an egg in the bottom of a tall vessel, fill it with water, 
then slowly add salt. Stir the solution and observe. 



35 



E. Determine the density of: 

1. a regular solid, an irregular solid, and a liquid by 
measurement. 

2. a liquid by means of a specific gravity bottle, a liquid 
by using a U-tube, a liquid using Hare's apparatus. 

F. Determine the specific gravity of a solid which is more than 
that of water using Archimedes' Principle. 

6. Determine the specific gravity of liquid using Archimedes' 
Principle. 

H. Demonstrate the principle of flotation. 

I. Show the principle of the hydrometer. 

J. Determine the specific gravity of a liquid using a hydrometer. 

K. Do a study of how a submarine surfaces and submerges. 

10.4.4 References 

Eubank, Howard L. , et al . Physics for Secondary Schools. 
Toronto: The Macmillan Company of Canada, 1959 

Elliott, L. Paul, et al . Physics, A Modern Approach . 
New York: The Macmillan Company of Canada, 1959 

Barton, O.C. et al . Physics, The Fundamental Science. 

Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and Winston of Canada, 1967 

Blackwood, Oswald H. , et al . High School Physics, Revised Edition. 
Toronto: Ginn and Company, 1961 

Brinckerhoff , Richard F. Exploring Physics, New Edition. 
Harcourt, Brace, and World, 1959 

White, Harvey. Physics, An Exact Science. 
Toronto: D. Van Nostrand Company, 1959 

Burns, Elmer E., et al . Physics, A Basic Science. 
Toronto: D. Van Nostrand Company, 1954 



36 



PHYSICS 10 
ELECTIVE 



10.5 SCIENCE AND SCIENTISTS 

10.5.1 Purpose 

The purpose of this elective is to provide opportunity for 
students, on their own or as part of a group, to explore the way 
in which ideas develop, the nature of the men who develop ideas 
and how they interact. As a result of participating in this 
elective it is expected that students will have a greater 
appreciation for the nature of science and the fact that it is a 
human activity subject to all of its advantages and disadvantages. 
Further, students will develop in their facility to research, 
collate and interpret historical data and begin to become aware 
of some of the inherant problems of this process. It is also 
hoped that physical concepts will be enriched, however it is not 
specified what these shall be. It is more important that students 
begin to realize that concepts can be enriched and that this is a 
never ending process. 

It is intended that this elective be flexible in how it is 
used. While it is expected that it will be most often used as 
part of an individualized or student choice package, it could also 
be used in a class situation if so desired. Some of the materials 
listed in the reference section are for this purpose. 

10.5.2 Objectives 

A. To provide opportunity for students to explore, via historical 
documents and summaries, the development of new ideas in physics. 

B. To gain insight into the nature of science and the scientific 
enterprise. 

C. To acquire a richer and fuller understanding of certain physical 
principles by examining their development through time. 

D. To relate the nature of scientific discoveries and knowledge with 
the nature of the scientists and the times in which they lived. 

10.5.3 Activities 

This elective provides opportunity for a variety of approaches. 
It would be wise to capitalize on the strengths and interests of 
students which may not be directly related to science (i.e. drama, 
art, etc.) 

Some suggestions: 

A. Prepare research reports. 

B. Read biographies, articles, etc. 



37 



C. View films and videotapes. 

D. Reconstruct early equipment and experiments. 

E. Prepare video, audio or slide-tape presentations. 

F. Prepare a Science Fair display. 

G. Analyze problems or problem development, 

H. Prepare a dramatization or characterization. 

I. Analyze a biography. 

J. Prepare a bibliography. 

K. Write a biography. 

L. Answer questions. 

M. Write a radio play. 

N. Prepare a collage. 

0. Draw a series of "significant sketches". 

P. Trace a "network of influences" showing how scientists have 
influenced one another. 

Q. Outline a "controversy" in scientific development. 

R. Compare three or four descriptions of one event and analyze the 
perspectives of the authors. 

S. Interview practising scientists and prepare a summary of how they 
solved a problem. 

T. Visit laboratories where research is being carried out. 

U. Conduct "tutorials" in the "British tradition". 

10.5.4 Evaluation 

Evaluation should be done in light of the objectives of the 
elective. Teachers should search for evidence that students are 
beginning to grasp the nature of scientific knowledge and how 
scientists approach and solve problems. This may be obtained by 
discussion with the student, examination of the product of the 
student 's effort or both. Other aspects, such as diligence, creativity 
and thoroughness may also be included. Further, the teacher should 
try to consider the abilities of the student before establishing a 
mark for this elective. 

10.5.5 Reference Material 



A wide variety of materials is available for this elective. 
Only a sampling is included here. Others listed elsewhere in this 
guide can also be used. Also the bibliography of Scientific American 
articles prepared by Jim Kruger and published by the Department of 
Education is of high value. 

A. Books 



38 



The Science Study Series - Anchor Books. 
Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Co. Inc. 

Moore, A.D., Invention, Discovery and C reativity 

Weaver, Warren., Lady Luck 

Gamow, George., Gravity 

Bondi , Hermann., The Universe at Large 

Ohring, George., Weather on the Planets: What We 
Know About Their Atmospheres 

Jaffe, Bernard., Moseley and The Numbering Of The Elements 

Sciama, D.W. , The P hysical Foundations of General 
Relativity 

Gamow, George., Thirty Years That Shook Physics 

Kock, Winston E., Sound Waves and Light Waves 

Kock, Winston E. , Lasers and Holography: An Introduction 
to Coherent Optics 

Bondi, Hermann., Relativity and Common Sense 

Pierce, John R. , Quantum Electronics 

Cohen, I. Bernard., The Birth Of A New Physics 

Bitter, Francis. , Ma gnets: The Education of A Physicist 

Asimov, Isaac, A Short History of Chemistry 

Davis, Kenneth S. and Day, John A., Water: The Mirror of 
Science 

Holden, Alan and Singer, Phyllis., Crystals and Crystal 
Growing 

Hurley, Patrick M. , How Old Is The Earth? 

Clancy, Edward, P., The Tides: Pulse of the Earth 

Bascom, Willard., Waves and Beaches, The Dynamics Of The 
Ocean Surface 

Blanchard, Duncan C. , From Raindrops to Volcanoes: 
Adventures With Sea Surface Meteorology 

Craig, Richard, A., The Edge of Space: Exploring The 
Upper Atmosphere 

Reiter, Elmar, R., Jet Streams: How Do They Affect Our 
Weather? 

Battan, Louis J., The Nature of Violent Storms 

Battan, Louis J. , 

Battan, Louis J. , 

Edinger, James G, 

Unseen Influences On Local Weather 



Cloud 


Physics- 


and 


Cloud 


Seed- 


ing 




Harves 


;ting 


The Cl( 


Duds 


The 


Seen 




Watch 


ling 


For 


The 


Wind: 


and 



39 



Landsberg, Helmut, E., Weather a nd H ealth 

Ovenden, M. W. , Life I n The Uni vers e: A Scientific 
Discussio n 

Galambos, Robert., N erves and Muscle s 

van Bergeljk, Will en; Pierce, John R., Waves And The 
Ear 

Fink, Donald, G., Computers and The Human Mind 

Pierce, John T., Electrons and Waves 

Pierce, John R. , Waves And Messages 

Battan, Louis J., T he Unclean Sky: A Meteorologist 
Looks At Air P oll ution 

Shapiro, Ascher. , Shape and Flow: The Fluid Dynamics 
of Drag 

Newhall, Beaumont., Latent Image 

Andrade, E.N. da C, Sir Isaac Newton: His Life and Work 

Koestler, Arthur., The Watershed: A biog r aphy of Johannes 
Kepler 

Patterson, Elizabeth, C. , John Dal ton And The Atomic 
Theory 

2. Jaffe, Bernard. Moseley and the Numbering of The Elements 
London: Heinemann Educational Books Ltd., 1971 

3. Rosenfeld, Albert. The Quintessence of Irving Langmuir . 
Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1966. 

4. Shamos, Morris H. Great Experiments in Physics . New York: 
Holt, Rinehart and Winston., 1959. 

5. Barnett, L. The Universe and Dr. Einstein, New York: The 
New American Library. 1952. 

6. Millikan, R.A. The Autobiography of Robert A. Millikan . 
New York: Prentice Hall Inc. 1950. 

7. Dibner, Ben., Oersted and the Discovery of Electromagnetism 
New York: Blaisdell Publishing Company, 1962. 

8. Walff, Peter Breakthroughs in Physics. 
New York: The New American Library, 1965 

B. Periodicals 

1. Greenslade, T.B. "19th Century Textbook Illustrations: 
Physics Texts", Physics Teacher , 14:370 Sept. '76. 

2. Moyer, A.E. "Benjamin Franklin: Let The Experiment Be Made", 
Physics Teacher , 14:536-45, Dec. '76. 

3. Heller, R.A. "Let Them Eat Soup; Count Rumford and Napoleon 
Bonaparte". Journal of Chemical Education, 53: 499-500 Aug. '76. 

4. Moyer, A.E. "Edwin Hall and The Emergence of The Laboratory 
in Teaching Physics". Physics Teacher , 14:96-103 Feb. '76 



40 



5. "Physics is Physics (about Floyd Karker) ; reprint from 

the American Physics Teacher, Feb. 1933". Physics Teacher , 
14:30-3 Jan. '76. 

6. Thumm, W. "Roentgen's Discovery of X-Rays". Physics Teacher , 
13:207 - 14, April '75. Reply with rejoinder M.S. Allen 
13:324-5, Sept. '75. 

7. Hoddeson, L.H. "Living History of Physics and The Human 
Dimension of Science". Physics Teacher , 12:275-82, May '74, 

8. Finegold, M. "Abondoned Paradigms: A Source of Materials 
for Discussion on the Nature of Research In Physics; Digby's 
argument on the nature of light". Phys ics Teacher , 12:401-6, 
Oct. '74. 

9. Berger, J. J. "Ampere: The Newton of Electricity". Science 
Teacher , 42: 24-6, Jan. '75. Reply with rejoinder. M. lona 
42:4, May, '75. 

10. Adler, C. G. and B. L. Coulter "Aristotle: Villain or Victim". 
Physics Teacher , 13:35-7, Jan. '75. 

11. Sherman, P. D., "Galileo and The Inclined Plane Controversy; 
replication of Galileo's Experiment". Physics Teacher , 
12:343-8 Sept. '74. 

12. Hoddeson, L. H., "Living History of Physics and The Human 
Dimension of Science". Physics Teacher , 12:275-82 May '74 

13. Spears, J.D. "Physics and the Establishment". Physics Teacher , 
13:301-2 May '75. 

14. Dellavalle, J. "Search in Science: An Approach for Non-Science 
Students; Study of Motion". Physics Teacher , 12:30 Jan. '74. 
Discussion 12:324; 13:5 Sept. '74, Jan. '75. 

15. See Scientific American bibliography prepared by Jim Kruger and 
published by the Department of Education. 

Others 

1. The Project Physics Readers , New York: Holt, Rinehart and 
Winston. 

2. Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, Studies In 
Scientific Enquiries . 

Finegold, Menahem Particles Verses Waves: Two 
Explanations For The Transmission of Light . 
Toronto: OISE, 1977. 

Finegold, Menahem From Visual Rays to Particles: 
The Development of a Theory in Optics. Toronto: 
OISE, 1977. 

Teacher's guides and auxilliary materials are also 
available. 

3. Video tapes, films, etc. 

The Ascent of Man Series - available from ACCESS 
Also see AV Branch Learning Resources Catalogue 



1 




1 








IQiy 


1 


llir 


■ 




41 



PHYSICS 10 
ELECTIVE 



10.6 SPACE EXPLORATION 



10.6.1 General Objectives 

A. To show the interaction of science and technology. 

B. To show the influence of physics in the development of 
communication. 

C. To show the importance of computers in space flights. 

D. To show the gigantic strides which have been made in technological 
developments in the last decade. 

E. To show the interaction of physical sciences and politics. 

10.6.2 Concepts and Activities 

A. Sputniks 

1. Western world reaction. 

2. Emphasis on science. 

3. All out effort to beat the Soviets. 

B. Space Walks 

1. First Soviet space walk. 

2. First American space walk. 

3. Link-ups. 

C. Moon Flights 

1. First manned flight in Apollo series, December 21, 1968. 

2. Development of Saturn rockets. 

3. Physical description of the moon. 

4. The first moon walk. 

5. Subsequent moon flights. 

D. Space Probes 

1. Flights to the other planets: Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupitet 
Saturn. 

2. Data from the sun. 

3. Future space flights. 

E. Communications Satellites 

1. Telstar 

2. Anik 



42 



10.6.3 References 



A. National Geographic has carried a number of articles on 
various aspects of space exploration as have other magazines 

B. A number of references are available from: 

Superintendent of Documents 
U.S. Government Printing Office 
Washington, D.C. 
U.S.A. 20402 

NASA videotapes available from ACCESS Dubbing Centres: 
C 



1. The Appolo 4 Mission 

2. The Flight of Apollo 7 

3. Debrief: Apollo 8 

4. Apollo 9: The Space Duet of Spider and Gumdrop 

5. Apollo 10: Green Light for Lunar Landing 

6. Eagle Has Landed: The Flight of Apollo 11 

7. Apollo 12: Pinpoint for Science 

8. Apollo 13 "Houston... We've Got A Problem" 

9. Apollo 14: Mission to Fra Mauro 

10. Apollo 15: In The Mountains of the Moon 

11. Apollo 16: Nothing so Hidden 

12. Apollo 17: On the Shoulders of Giants 

13. Apollo/Soyuz 

14. Adventures in Research 

15. Doorway to Tomorrow 

16. The Dream That Wouldn't Down 

17. Five Minutes to Live 

18. The Flight of Faith 7 

19. Flight Without Wings 

20. The Four Days of Gemini 4 

21. 4 RMS -- Earth View 

22. Freedom 7 

23. Friendship 7 

24. Jupiter Odyssey 

25. Mariner - Mars '69 



10 

14 

28 

28^ 

28 

28 



ins. , C) 
ins. , C) 
ins. , C) 
mins. , C) 
i mins. , C) 
i mins. , C) 
28 mins. , C) 
28 mins. , C) 
28 mins. , C) 
28 mins. , C) 
28 mins. , C) 
28 mins. , C) 
28 mins. , C) 
18 mins. , C) 
28 mins. , C) 

27 mins., B/W) 
18 mins. , C) 

28 mins., C) 
14i mins. , C) 
27i mins. , C) 
28 mins. , C) 
28i mins. , C) 
58 mins. , C) 
28 mins. , C) 
21 mins. , C) 



43 



26. Mars -- The Search Begins 

27. New View of Space 

28. Orbiting Solar Observatory 

29. Research Project X-15 

30. Seeds of Discovery 

31. Small Steps Giant Strides 

32. Space in the 70 's -- Space Down to Earth 

33. Space in the 70's -- Aeronautics 

34. Space in the 70 's -- Man in Space -- The 

Second Decade 

35. Space in the 70 's -- The Knowledge Bank 

36. Space in the 70's -- Challenge and Promise 



(28i mins. 


, C) 


(28 mins. , 


c) 


(25 mins. , 





(27 mins. , 


c) 


(28 mins. , 


c) 


(28i mins. 


, C) 


(27i mins. 


, C) 


(28 mins.. 


c) 


(28 mins. , 


c) 


(25 mins. , 


c) 


(265 mins. 


, C) 



44 



PHYSICS 10 
Elective 



10.7 EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF MOTION 

10.7.1 Objectives 

A. To increase the laboratory skills associated with the 
experimental study of motion. 

B. To provide an opportunity to quantitatively determine 
regularities which exist in a study of motion. 

C. To increase the mathematical skills associated with the 
manipulation of data. 

10.7.2 C oncepts and Activities 

A. This elective involves performing motion experiments from 
the Project Physics Handbook published by Rinehart and 
Winston, Inc., New York. 

B. Experiments 

1. Experiment 1-2. Regularity and Time 

An experiment which deals with regularity and the 
occurrence of natural events. Several occurring 
events are timed in the laboratory to determine how 
regularly an event occurs. Equipment necessary for 
this experiment includes a strip chart recorder and 
tape upon which a selected pair of events is recorded 
and compared. 

PP 1 p. 1/16 

2. Experiment 1 - 4. Measuring Uniform Motion. 

An experiment which studies very simple motion and makes 
a photo record of it. Measurements are made from a 
photograph of a motion event which reveals the speed 
of an object. These measurements are used to draw 
graphs which can be used to decide whether the motion 
was uniform. Equipment necessary for this experiment 
includes a Polaroid camera and stroboscope equipment. 

PP 1 p. 1/18 

3. Experiment 1 - 6. Twentieth Century Version of Galileo's 

Experiment 

This experiment is an extension of the one described in 
the core material and attempts to more convincingly show 
that d/t is a constant for accelerating bodies. With 



45 



more modern equipment, it is hoped that Galileo's 
conclusion can be verified, as well as, being able 
to determine more accurately the acceleration of 
bodies in free fall. Equipment necessary for this 
experiment includes an air track and stop watch. 

PP 1 p. 1/24 

4. Experiment 1 - 7. Measuring the Acceleration of Gravity. 

An experiment which provides a method for determining 
the acceleration of gravity by allowing spheres to drop 
on a rotating turntable. Measurements are made of the 
vertical distance between the spheres and the angular 
distance between the marks on the turntable paper. With 
these measurements and the speed of the turntable, the 
free fall time is determined. Equipment necessary for 
this experiment includes an electric turntable. 

PP 1 p. 1/25 

5. Experiment 1 - 8. Newton's Second Law. 

This experiment measures the average acceleration of a 
dynamics cart by taking a Polaroid photograph of an 
acceleration event. The event is photographed through 
a rotating disk stroboscope of a light source mounted on 
the cart. An alternative method uses a liquid surface 
accelerometer fastened to the cart. The experiment 
provides a feeling for the behavior of objects in terms 
of force, mass, and acceleration. Equipment necessary 
for this experiment may include a Polaroid camera, motor 
stroboscope, blinky, or accelerometer. 

PP 1 p. 1/30 

6. Experiment 1 - 10. Curves of Trajectories. 

An experiment which illustrates the path which objects 
trace as they move under the influence of an initial 
forward velocity and the accelerating force of gravity. 
A ball is rolled down a ramp and allowed to travel onto 
a board which has a combination of onion skin and carbon 
paper attached to it. The ball moving over this 
combination leaves a trace of the trajectory curve. 
Equipment necessary for this experiment includes a 
trajectory apparatus. 

PP 1 p. 1/34 

7. Experiment 1 - 13. Centripetal Force on A Turntable. 

This experiment provides an opportunity to quantitatively 
study how forces act in circular motion. For objects on 
a rotating disk, the centripetal force is provided by 
friction. In this experiment measurements are made of the 
maximum force that friction can provide on an object. 



46 



This result is used to determine the maximum distance 
from the centre of a rotating disk an object can be 
without sliding off. Equipment necessary for the 
experiment includes an electric turntable. 

PP 1 p. 1/40 

10.7.3 Reference 

Rutherford, F. James, et al . Project Physics Handbook . 
Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1975. 



PHYSICS 

20 



Physics 20 

Core 



47 



PHYSICS 20 
(3 Credits) 

Objectives Of The Physics 20 Program: 
The student should: 

20.1 Demonstrate knowledge of the physical principles underlying the 
topics of physics specified in the course outline. 

20.2 Develop skill in using experimentation, mathematical techniques, 
and other strategies as a means of substantiating knowledge of 
physical principles. 

20.3 Become aware of the historical development of physics as a 
discipline. 

20.4 Become aware of the social impact, past and present, of the application 
of physics principles. 

20.5 Develop the ability to apply knowledge of physical principles to 
vocational and avocational interests. 

20.6 Attain a deeper insight into environmental problems through 
understanding physical limitations. 

20.7 Develop a positive attitude toward physics and an interest in science. 
Organization of Program 

Approximately 40 hours of instructional time shall be devoted to the core 
topics and approximately 25 hours to elective topics. 

Content of elective units is to relate to the core in one of three ways: 

a. an extension of a core topic 

b. an in-depth, intensive study of a core topic 

c. a practical application of a core topic 

Prescribed Core Reference 

Paul, Douglas; Denny Peirce and Kenneth Stief. Physics: A Human Endeavour: 
Unit 3. Energy and the Conservation Laws. Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and 
Winston of Canada, Limited, 1976. 



48 



CONCEPTS AND SUBCONCEPTS 



PHYSICS 20 

CORE 

TXM_E 
1/2 



^20.1 Momentum and the interaction 
of bodies in nature. 

^20.1.1 Conservation of mass. 't 

In a world where 
continuous change is 
observed man has sought 
that which endures . 

A. The search for things that 
remain unchanged has been long 
and assiduous. Constancy and 
change are central to the 
structure of science. 

1. Many things once believed to 
be unchanging have been found 
to vary. 

2. There are some things in which 
no change has been observed. 

B. Conservation of mass is a good 
illustration with which to begin. 
There are many instances in which 
one is likely to be deceived by 
appearances if observations are 
not carefully made. 



SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES 



( 



Students should be reminded that 
laboratory reports should be a 
complete and clear record of what 
happened. Answers to any questions 
in the handbooks are definitely 
a part of helping to understand the 
experiment. A complete record 
should include the object, 
apparatus, procedure, observations, 
results and conclusion 
(PHE 1 p. 101) 



Many teachers will want to do some 
reading on the concept of 
conservation in general because it 
is the basis for much of the 
Physics 20 core. The Teacher 
references listed are recommended 
in addition to parts of PHE 
(Chapter 10 and 11) and PP (Chapter 

Some of the above reading matter 
is for students as well as 
teachers . 



I 



Act. Conservation of Mass 
PHE 10.1 p. 117 

Read Conservation of Mass 

PP 9.1 p. 5 Unit 3, or ar. 
convenient reference on 
Lavoisier's experiments and 
conclusions. This material 
is an excellent basis for 
class discussion. 



Numbered statements beginning with 20 relate directly to Program of Study statements 

Times are suggestions only and are given in hours. 

More activities are suggested than can be done in the time allotted to the core. 

Teachers should chose the ones which best meet their requirements and should not 

feel restricted to those listed. 

A Key to abbreviations is found on p. 149 



I 



49 



1. Some processes in nature, 
such as the burning of a 
fire, seem to destroy matter. 
Closer examination shows that 
only a change in form has 
taken place and that the 
amount of matter remains 
constant. 

2. Modern physics has revealed 
a mass-energy relationship. 
When mass disappears energy 
is liberated. 

20.1.2 Problem of Discovering a 
Quantity of Motion. 

Is there some aspect of 
motion that is the same 
after a collision as it 
was before? 

20.1.3 The Collision of Bodies 

A. Collisions within isolated 
systems provide a way to 
examine motion. 

B. Motions and masses of 
interacting bodies in an 
isolated system can be 
measured before and after 
interaction, and the results 
analysed in order to find 
relationships. 

C. The product of m and v is 
found to be conserved in all 
cases of head on collision. 



20.1.4 Conservation of Momentum 

The conserved quantity, mv 
is now called momentum. It 
merits a special name only 
because it is conserved. 



1/2 



1/2 



This will be more fully examined 
later in the course. 



Read The Search for a Quantity 
Of Motion 
PHE 10.2 p. 3 



Dem, 



Exp. 

Exp. 
Exp. 
Exp. 
FL 



Isolated systems. Observe 
qualitatively the motion 
displayed by use of air 
tracks, air tables, friction- 
less pucks, dynamics carts, 
Fletcher's trolley, toy cars, 
ball bearings on glass, or 
billiard balls. 

Collisions in One Dimension 
PHE 10.1 , 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 

and 10.5 p. 107 
or PP Unit 3 p. 148 

Elastic collision of Trolleys 
N IV - 41a p. 81 

Inelastic collision of Trolleys 
N IV - 41b p. 84 

Adding Man to a moving system 
N IV - 42 p. 86 



Collisions in One Dimension 

PHE 10.1, 10.2, 10.3 and 

10.5 p. 118 
or PP 3 p. 169 

(NOTE: Save the data from the 
above experiments for further 
examination in the energy study 
which is to follow) . 



50 



20.1.5 Using the Law of Conservation 
of Momentum. 

A. The Law of Conservation of 
Momentum can be used to predict 
the outcome of interaction 
between moving bodies. 

B. The predictions mentioned above 
can often be checked 
experimentally. 

C. Collisions in two dimensions show 
that momentum is a vector quantity. 

1. When momentum is treated as a 
vector quantity the Law of 
Conservation of Momentum is 
seen to hold true. 

2. The usefulness of the Law of 
Conservation of Momentum is 
expanded by assuming the vector 
nature of momentum. 



20.2 Energy as a key concept in the 
study of science. 

20.2.1 Energy 



1 1/2 



Some aspect of motion besides 
momentum was found to be 
conserved in a certain kind 
of collision. 

Historically, this new 
conservation law required the 
definition of an elastic 
collision. 

The discovery of the new conserved 
quantity led to the recognition of 
what we now call kinetic energy. 



20.2.2 Work 

A. Work is done when a force is 
exerted on an object causing 
it to move in the direction 
of the force. 



1 1/2 



Many physics textbooks present 
a wide variety of problems in 
this area. Wisely selected 
exercises and problems can do 
a great deal to help students 
fully realize the concepts 
involved. 

Act. Momentum Exchange 

PHE 10.2 and 10. 3 p. 117 

Exp. Collisions in Two Dimensions 
PHE 10.6 p. 114 
PP 3-3 p. 3/13 

Exp. Two-dimensional collisions 
N IV - 48 p. 98 

FL PHE 10.4 p. 119 

PP L21 p. 3/77 

Further experience in problem 
solving is desirable at this 
point. 



The data from many of the 
momentum experiments and film 
loops above should be used to 
give evidence of the newly found 
conserved quantity. 



The concept of energy should be 
expanded by a brief look at 
several forms of energy. 

Dem. Qualitative demonstrations 
of kinetic energy. 
N IV - 58 p. 120 

Act. Energy Transformation 
PHE 11.1 p. 125 



51 



B. A joule of work is done when a 
force of one newton is exerted 
for a distance of one meter in 
the direction of the force. 

C. Energy is the ability to do 
work. 

1. It exists in many forms. 

2. It is measured in the same 
units as work. 

20.2.3 Power 

A. Power is the rate at which 
work is done. 

B. A watt is a joule per second. 



20.2.4 Kinetic Energy 

Kinetic energy can be shown 
to be equal to mv^/2. The 
formula is derived from the 
laws of motion along with 
the assumption that energy 
is conserved. 

20.2.5 Potential Energy 

A. Potential energy is due to the 
position of an object. 

B. There are many forms of 
potential energy. 



20.2.6 Gravitational Potential 
Energy. 

Gravitational potential 
energy was the first form 
of potential energy to be 
understood and defined 
(PE = mgh) 



Illustrate by measuring the 
work done in several examples 



Take a second look at the forms 
of energy. This time see how 
each form can do work. 



Exp. Power of a Motor 
PHE 11.1 p. 121 

Act. Power Measurement 
PHE 11.2 p. 126 

Devise a way to measure the 
power output of a small electric 
motor. 

Exp. The Energy of a Moving 
Object 
PHE 11.2 p. 121 



Act. 



Dem. 



Potential Energy in a 

Spring 

PHE 11.4 p. 126 



Transfer of Kinetic Energy 
to Potential Energy. 
N II - 59 p. 120 

Examples of release of potential 
energy from springs, elastic 
bands, compressed air, elevated 
objects, electrically charged 
bodies, and magnets can be 
observed. 



Energy and Work 
(16 mm - 28 minutes 
PSSC series 



long) 



Exp, 



Galileo's Pin and Pendulum 

Experiment 

N IV - 64 p. 136 



52 



20.2.7 Conservation of Mechanical 2 1/2 
Energy 

A. Mechanical energy includes 
kinetic energy and potential 
energy. It is conserved in 
any system where friction is 
negl igible. 

B. Work done on a body changes its 
energy content. 

20.2.8 Friction and Molecular 1/2 
Action 

A. Not all systems conserve 
mechanical energy. This 
observation led to 
recognition of another form 
of energy. 

B. Friction produces heat. 



20.2.9 Heat as a Form of Energy 

A. Heat is produced in predictable 
amounts from other forms of 
energy. 

B. A joule of mechanical energy 
becomes a joule of heat when 
it is transformed. 

C. Heat is measured indirectly in 
terms of its cause or effect. 



20.2.10 Law of Conservation of 1/2 
Energy 

A. Modern physics uses the concepts 
of conservation of mass, momentum, 
and energy at the forefronts of 
investigation. 

B. The search continues for other 
conserved quantities. 



Exp. 

FL 

Act. 
Read 
Dem. 



The Energy of a Falling 

Object 

PHE 11.3 p. 123 

Conservation of Energy 
PHE 11.1 p. 127 

Energy of a Pendulum 
PHE 11.5 p. 126 



Friction 
PHE 11.9 



p. 31 



Transfer of Energy in 

Lifting Loads 

N II - 55 p. -13 



Qualitative evidence should be 
obtained simply. 

Measurement is difficult at this 
stage. 



Exp. Measurement of J 

N IV - 107 p. 223 



Exp. Calorimetry 

PP 3-11 p. 3/33 

or any other source of experiments 
in calorimetry. 



Read The Law of Conservation of 
Energy 
PHE 11.11 p. 38 

Dem. Demonstration of levers and 
pulleys to show that 
machines do not multiply 
energy 
N II - 68 p. 152 



53 



20.3 Nature and Propagation of Waves 

20.3.1 Waves are Energy Carriers 1 1/2 

A. Energy may be transferred by 
waves. 

B. A wave is a mechanism which 
propagates energy through 

a distance using vibratory 
motion. 



20.3.2 Transverse and Longitudinal 
waves. 

A. In a transverse wave the 
particles vibrate perpendicular 
to the direction of energy 
transfer. 

B. A transverse wave has crests 
and troughs. 

C. Transverse waves in which the 
particles of the medium 
oscillate in one plane only are 
said to be plane polarized. 

D. In a longitudinal wave the 
particles vibrate parallel to 
the direction of energy 
transfer. 

E. A compression in a longitudinal 
wave is a region where the 
particles are most highly 
concentrated; a rarefaction is 
a region where the particles 
are least concentrated. 

F. Sound energy is transmitted 
through the air by means of 
longitudinal waves. 

G. Longitudinal waves cannot be 
polarized. 

20.3.3 Physical Description of 
Waves 

A. The time required for a wave 
to travel one wave-length is 
called the period. 



Students experiment with a 
slinky, a coil spring, a rubber 
rope, a wave machine, etc. 

Exp. How Pulses Travel 

PHE 13.1 p. 135 

Act Wave Machine 

PHE 13.6 p. 145 

Read Waves 

PPR3 p. 188 

What is a Wave 
PPR3 p. 208 



2 1/2 



Act. Polarization of Waves 
PHE 13.1 p. 143 



Act. Vibrations of a Tuning Fork 

PHE 13.2 p. 144 

Read Founding a Family of Fiddles 

PPR3 p. 233 



Exp. Waves in a Ripple Tank 
PHE 13.3 p. 137 

Exp. Waves at a Boundary 
PHE 13.2 p. 136 



54 



The number of complete 
vibrations of the source 
per unit time is called the 
frequency. 



C. The unit of frequency is 
the hertz. 

D. The period of vibration varies 
inversely as the frequency. 

E. The distance between two 
successive particles in the 
same phase is called the 
wavelength. 

F. Maximum displacement from the 
equilibrium position is called 
the amplitude. 

G. The reduction in amplitude of 
a wave as it loses energy is 
called damping. 

H. The velocity of a wave is 
directly proportional to its 
frequency and to its wave 
length. 

I. The velocity of sound in air 
depends on temperature. 

J. Waves travel more quickly as 
the depth of liquid media 
increases. 

20.3.4 Reflection and Refraction 

of Waves 

A. When waves are reflected, the 
angle of incidence equals the 
angle of reflection. 



Exp. The following series of 
experiments includes 
material suitable for 
sections 20.3.3, 20.3.4, 
and 20.3.5 

N III-4 (a to u inclusive) 
p. 8 

Some measurement of the frequency, 
velocity, wavelength, and 
amplitude of waves using a coil 
spring, slinky, rubber rope, 
wave machines, etc. 
Standing waves can be shown with 
a rubber rope. An oscilloscope 
with a frequency machine 
demonstrates wave forms, amplitude, 
frequency, wavelength, etc. 



I 



Exp. Reflection of Waves 
PHE 13.4 p. 138 



55 



B. In order to focus plane waves 
to a point, a parabolic surface 
must be used. 

C. Refraction is the change in 
direction of a wave as it 
passes obliquely between 
regions of differing wave 
speed. 

D. The angles of reflection and 
refraction are always 
measured from the normal. 

E. Sound waves are refracted in 
the air as the sound wave 
travels through layers of 

air at different temperatures. 

F. The index of refraction is 
determined by dividing the 
sine of the angle of incidence 
by the sine of the angle of 
refraction. 

20.3.5 Diffraction and Interference 
of Waves 



Mathematical definition and 
description of a parabola. 

Exp. Refraction of Waves 
PHE 13.5 p. 139 



2 1/2 



A. The spreading of waves around 
corners is known as diffraction. 

B. Every point on a wave front 
may be considered to behave as 
a point source for new 
spherical waves generated in 
the direction of the wave 
propagation. 

C. When two waves meet, interference 
results. If the amplitude of 
two interfering waves increases, 
constructive interference 
results and if the amplitude 
decreases, this phenomenon is 
known as destructive interference. 

D. A point of continuous zero 
amplitude of displacement is 
called a node. 

E. A point of maximum displacement 
produced by two superposed waves 
is called an an ti node. 



Ripple Tank experiments 

Exp. Waves at Corners and Slits 
PHE 13.6 p. 140 



Exp. Interference of Waves 
PHE 13.7 p. 141 

Exp. Interference in the Ripple 
Tank 
PHE 13.8 p. 142 



56 



Reference s 

Feinberg, G. , and M. Goldhaber. "Conservation Laws" Scienti fi c American , 
October, 1963. 

Feynman, Richard P., "Conservation of Momentum", Chapter 10, Lectures On 

Physics , Vol. I. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 
1963. 

Hulsizer, R.I. and D. Lazarus. "The Conservation Laws" Chapter 7 The World 
of Physics. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 
1972. 

Meiner, H.F., (ed) Physics Demo nstration Ex periments Vol. I, Chapter 9, 10, 
and 11: Vol. II, Chapters 25 and 26.: The Ronald Press Company, 1970. 

Lewis, John L. , (ed.) Longman's Physics Topics London: The Longman Group, 
1970. 

Nuffield Foundation. Nuffield Physics - Guide to Experiments II . London: 
The Longman Group, 1967. 

Nuffield Foundation. Nuffield Physics - Teacher's Guide II . London: The 
Longman Group, 1967. 

Paul, Douglas, Denny Peirce and Kenneth Stief. Physics: A Human Endeavour : 
Unit 3 Energy and the Conservation Laws. Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and 
Winston of Canada, Limited, 1976. 

Rothman, M.A., Discovering the Natural Laws Garden City, New York: Doubleday 
Anchor, 1972 (The Science Study Series) 

Rutherford, F. James, et al . Project Physics. Unit 3 The Triumph of 

Mechanics. Text and Handbook. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 
Inc., 1975. 

Rutherford, F. James, et al . Project Physics Reader. Unit 3. The Triumph of 
Mechanics. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1975. 

Rutherford, F. James, et al. Project Physics Resource Book. New York: Holt, 
Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1975. 

Scientific American , September 1971 (Complete issue on Energy and Pov/er). 

Stollberg, Robert, Faith Fitch Hill and Marvin H. Nygaard. Fundamentals of 

Physics. Canadian ed. Don Mills: Thomas Nelson & Sons (Canada) Ltd. , 1968. 



Physics 20 
Electives 



57 



PHYSICS 20 
ELECTIVE 



20.1 THE KINETIC THEORY OF MATTER I 

20.1.1 Preamble 

Three basic assumptions of the Kinetic Theory are: 

A. matter is composed of tiny particles with physical properties 
being determined by forces exerted on each other and the 
distance between them. 

B. molecules are in constant, chaotic motion with average 
kinetic energy depending on temperature. 

C. molecules obey Newton's Laws of motion with momentums and 
kinetic energies being conserved. 

Adhering to the above assumptions is required for study of the 
properties of not only gases, but solids and liquids as well. 

20.1.2 General Objectives 

A. To promote an assimilation of scientific knowledge. 

B. To promote development of skill in the methods used by 
physicists. 

C. To contribute to the development of vocational knowledge and 
skill. 

D. To develop attitudes, interests, values, adjustments and 
appreciations similar to those exhibited by physicists at 
work. 

20.1.3 Concepts and Learning Objectives 
Forces Acting Between Molecules 

A. Density and force. 

B. The nature of solids. 

1. Van der Walls forces 

2. crystalline and amorphous solids 

3. diffusion 

4. cohesion and adhesion in solids 

5. tensile strength 

6. ductility and malleability 

7. elasticity 

i . Hookes Law 

C. The nature of liquids. 

1. cohesion and adhesion in liquids 

2. surface tension (meniscus) 

3. pressure exerted by liquids (p = F/A and p = hd) 



58 



4. capillarity 

5. Pascal's Principle and the hydraulic press 

D. The buoyant force of liquids 

1. Archimedes' Principle 

2. specific gravity of solids and liquids. 

E. Thermal expansion of solids and liquids. 

This subject may be dealt with if time permits or it may be 
an elective of its own accord. It should be mentioned, however, in relation 
to molecular activity and temperature change. 

Activities may be chosen from the following list and correlated 
to concepts; it is not intended that all activities be accomplished in the 
time alloted. 

20.1.4 Activities 

A. Determination of D^ of various irregularly shaped materials 
(Dm = m/V). 

B. Use of sulphur and salt to compare and contrast amorphous and 
crystalline solids. 

C. The concept of diffusion may be accomplished with a simple dye 
and water (paper or column chromatography may be employed). 

D. Cohesion may be demonstrated with ground glass or two smoothly 
polished metal sheets. Adhesion demonstrations are unlimited, 

E. Determination of tensile strength of a material may be accom- 
plished by the use of a large gauge wire to which known force 
is added. 

F. Determination of the elastic modulus or material constant with 
Hookes Law apparatus. 

G. Determination of surface tension with various liquids and 
contrasting the cohesiveness of mercury with water. 

H. Show that a liquid exerts force in all directions. 

I. Show that pressure is related to weight and area the 1 iquid 
covers (p = F/A). 

J. Demonstrate that pressure exerted by liquid due to its weight 
depends on two factors, the depth of the liquid and its weight 
density. 

K. Demonstrate that liquids do not stand at the same level in 
connecting tubes of varying small diameters. 

L. Demonstrate that forces applied to a confined liquid are 
transmitted equally in all directions. 

M. Determination of density of various materials using buoyant 
force as well as determining densities of liquids. 

N. Determination of specific gravities of liquids by bottle or 
other methods. 



59 



20.1.5 Evaluation 

The evaluation of the module may take the form of written laboratory 
reports, objective examination, notwithstanding the inclusion of 
any subjective pursuits, or perhaps a paper which v/ould include 
any results and observations the student made during the activities. 
Any of the foregoing activities may be altered to accommodate the 
less mathematically inclined student, however, all students should 
come away with the realization that physical properties are deter- 
mined by forces between particles. 

20.1.6 References * 

i 

Dull, Charles E., H. Clark Metcalfe, and John E. Williams. Modern 
Physics . New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1964. 

Genzer, Irwin, and Philip Youngner. Physic s, Teacher's Edition. 
Morristown, New Jersey: Silver BurHett- General Learning 
Corporation, 1973. 

Rutherford, F. James, et al. Project Physics Reader . Unit 3. 
The Triumph of Mechanics . New York: Holt, Rinehart and 
Winston, Inc. , 1975. 

Rutherford, F. James, et al. Project Physics Text . New York: 
Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1975. 

Semat, Henry and Robert Katz. Physics . Toronto: Holt, Rinehart 
and Winston of Canada, Ltd., 1958. 

Stollberg, Robert, Faith Fitch Hill, and Marvin H. Nygaard. 

Fundamentals of Physics . Canadian ed. Don Mills: Thomas 
Nelson & Sons (Canada), Ltd., 1968. 



60 



PHYSICS 20 
ELECTIVE 



20.2 SOUND 

20.2.1 Objectives 

A. To show the effect of science on health. 

B. To promote science for leisure-time activities. 

C. To develop a critical understanding of those social problems 
which have a significant scientific component in terms of their 
cause. 

D. To promote understanding of and development of skill in the 
methods used by scientists. 

E. To develop understanding of the physics of sound. 

20.2.2 Concepts 

A. Presbycusis 

1. Hearing damage increases with the quantity and intensity 
of sound heard. 

2. The people who live in industrialized nations suffer a 
much greater hearing loss than primitive societies. 

3. The louder the noise is and the longer the loud noise lasts, 
the greater will be the hearing damage. 

4. There is also an increase in hearing damage due to non- 
occupational noise or sociocusis. 

B. Types of Noise 

1. There is random noise, impact noise and pure tone. 

2. Musical sounds are distinguishable by pitch, loudness, and 
tone quality or timbre. 

3. The quality of a sound depends upon the number of relative 
intensities of the overtones produced by the sounding bodies. 

4. The pitch of a sound is primarily determined by frequency. 

5. The loudness of a sound is determined by amplitude. 

C. Sound Pressure Level 

1. Sound originates with some sort of vibration and is propagated 
through a medium (solid, liquid, gas) in the form of 
longitudinal waves composed of alternate compressions and 
rarefactions. 

2. The sound level is measured in decibels. 



61 



D. The Human Ear 

1. The ear is the organ which converts air vibrations to 
impulses which can be received by the brain. 

2. The psychological condition of a person partly determines 
the sound he hears. 

3. The audio spectrum ranges from 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz. 

4. The threshold of hearing is the minimum intensity level 
at which sound can be heard. 

5. The threshold of pain is the upper intensity level for 
sounds. 

E. Reflection, Reverberation, and Absorption of Sound 

1. Sounds are reflected from hard smooth surfaces. 

2. An echo is heard if the reflector is at least 20 meters 
from the observer. This is equivalent to a one-tenth 
second time interval. 

3. In a closed room, sound energy may reflect many times from 
the walls before it dies down. These numerous reflections 
are called reverberations. 

4. In a room designed for speeches, sound energy must be 
absorbed quickly enough to reduce reverberation time but 
without absorbing too much sound. 

5. Many modern auditoriums now have acoustic walls and ceilings 
so that the sound of the source reaches the listener 
without much distortion. 

F. Beats 

1. When two sound waves of different frequencies interfere, they 

produce increases and decreases in intensity which are called beats 
The beat frequency is equal to the frequency difference of 
the two sources. 

G. Standing Waves 

1. Standing waves result when incoming and reflected waves 
having the same frequency and amplitude are opposite in 
phase and travel through the same medium in opposite 
directions. The points of zero amplitude are called nodes 
and the points of maximum amplitude are called antinodes. 

2. In a vibrating rope, the frequencies of the overtones are 
whole-number multiples of the frequency of its fundamental 
tones. Such overtones are called harmonics. 

H. Resonance 

1. Resonance is an energy transfer through a medium from one 
vibrating object to another vibrating object with the same 
natural frequency. 

2. The resonance of an object may be altered by changing its 
mass or its structural stiffness. 



62 



I. Doppler Effect and Sonic Boom 

1. A sonic boom is associated with any object flying faster 
than the speed of sound. 

2. Sonic booms are startling but can be tolerated if they 
occur randomly and rarely. 

3. The wavelength of the sound produced by a moving object 
is shortened in front and increased behind the object. 
This is described as the Doppler effect. 

4. An approaching object produces a higher pitch than a 
receding one with an identical vibrating source. 

J. Vibrating Air Columns 

1. The vibration of air columns within pipes can produce sound, 
Vibrating air columns may be open or closed. 

2. The vibration frequencies permitted in pipes are primarily 
related to the length of the resonating pipe. 

3. A large number of harmonics are possible in both open and 
closed pipes. A harmonic is a frequency which is an 
integral multiple of the fundamental frequency. 

K. Modes of Vibrations for Stretched Strings 

1. The frequency of vibration of a stretched string is 
inversely proportional to its length. 

2. The frequency of vibration is proportional to the square 
root of its tension. 

3. The frequency of vibration is inversely proportional to the 
square root of its density. 



20.2.3 Experiments 



A variety of experiments illustrating resonance, the frequency of 
a tuning fork, and the speed of sound can be performed. 



20.2.4 References 



Paul, D., et al . Physics: A Human Endeavour :Unit 4, The Nature 
of Light and Sound . Toronto, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 
1974. 

Hutchison, D. E. Sound Waves . Agincourt: Gage Educational 
Publishing, 1975. 

Weissman, Simon A. Modern Concepts in Physics . New York: Oxford 
Book Company, 1973. 

Williams, John E., et al . Exercises and Experiments in Physics . 
Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and Winston of Canada Ltd., 1972. 

Stevens, S., et al . Sound and Hearing . New York: Life Science 
Library, Time-Life Books, 1970. 

Bergeijk, W. Van, et al. Waves and the Ear . Garden City: Anchor 
Books, Doubleday and Company, 1960. 



63 



Brinckerhoff , Richard F. Exploring Physics, New Edition. New 
York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1959, 

Harris, Norman C, et al . Introductory Applied Physics , 2nd 
Edition. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1963. 

White, Harvey. Physics, An Exact Science . Toronto: D. Van 
Nostrand Company, 1959. 

Burns, Elmer E., et al . Physics, A Basic Science . Toronto: D, 
Van Nostrand Company, 1954. 



64 



PHYSICS 20 
ELECTIVE 

20.3 ENERGY RESOURCES , ENERG Y CRISIS, E NERGY CONSERVATION 

20.3.1 Objectives 

A. To show man's dependence on science and technology. 

B. To show that science plays an important part in the develop- 
ment of energy alternatives. 

C. To make the student aware of the need for energy conservation. 

D. To enable the student to critically analyze and interpret 
news reports on the energy crisis. 

E. To make the student aware of the moral and ethical implications 
in the sale, distribution andwasteof energy resources. 

F. To make the students aware that any country possessing huge 
quantities of energy resources can create a complete disruption 
of present world economics. 

20.3.2 Concepts 

A. Fossil fuels, oil, natural gas, coal, wood, .... 

1. abundance and location 

2. distribution and supply 

3. projected availability - Have world reserves been over- 
estimated? How plentiful are Canada's reserves? Alberta's 
reserves? 

B. Alternate sources of power. 

1. solar: solar cells, space vehicles, home heating, space 
collectors and reflectors, .... 

2. wind: generating electricity, types of generators, .... 

3. nuclear: operating electric generators, power submarines, 
autos?..., release oil from Tar Sands by nuclear explosion. 

4. geothermal : capturing Earth's interior heat from geysers, 
volcanoes, etc. 

5. tidal 

6. glacial 

7. Tar Sands in Northern Alberta 

8. other types: E = mc^, .... 



65 



C. Energy conservation. 

1. compacts versus luxury cars 

2. fuel rationing (Is a higher price really a deterrent) 

3. daylight saving time 

4. desirability of electric toothbrushes, air conditioners, 
etc. 

5. new suggestions? 

20.3.3 Evaluation 

The depth and content of this module will depend on the student's 
interest and perserverence in research. When evaluating this 
module, the teacher should consider any rational suggestions the 
student may offer in the way of conserving energy. 

20.3.4 References 

Only a small part of this module should come from any one text. 
Research of current news reports, newspaper articles, magazine 
coverage, government publications, and other materials will provide 
much information. Sometimes television and radio programs are 
devoted to the energy crisis. 

Kogan, Philip, et al . The Silent Energy . Boston: Foundations 
of Science Library, Ginn & Company, 1966. 

Hawrelak, Jacalyn, Terry Rachuk, and Jim Barlishen Wind Power 
In Alberta . Edmonton: The Alberta Research Council, 1976. 

Information may also be obtained from: 
Syncrude Canada 
9915 - 108 Street 
EDMONTON, Alberta 

Anderson, Bruce. The Solar Home Book Harrisville: Cheshire Books 

Knelman, Fred H. Nuclear Energy, The Unforgiving Technology 
Edmonton: Hurtig Publishers. 

Prenis, John. Energy Book . Philadelphia, Running Press, 38 South 
Nineteenth Street. 

Williams, J. Richard. Solar Energy Technology and Application 
Ann Arbor: Science Publishers. 



66 



PHYSICS 20 
Elective 

20 . 4 HEAT, CALORIMETRY A ND THERM AL EXPA NSION 

20.4.1 Preamble 

This module involves a significant amount of mathematics because 
of an intensive laboratory approach. 

20.4.2 General Objectives 

A. To promote an understanding of the methods used by physicists 

B. To promote assimilation of scientific knowledge. 

C. To develop attitudes, interests, values, appreciations, and 
adjustments similar to those exhibited by physicists at work. 

D. To contribute to the development of vocational knowledge and 
skill. 

20.4.3 Concepts 

A. The nature of heat. 

1 . sources of heat 

2. heat, temperature and thermal energy 

B. Expansion of solids, liquids and gases. 

1. coefficient of linear expansion (area expansion) 

2. expansion of liquids 

3. abnormal expansion of water 

4. expansion of gases (general gas law) 

C. The measurement of heat. 

1 . heat units 

2. heat capacity 

3. specific heat 

4. Law of Heat exchange (Q = met) 

D. Fusion. 

1 . effect of pressure on fusion point 

2. effect of dissolved materials on the fusion point 

3. heat of fusion 



67 



E. Vaporization 

1. vaporization and sublimation 

2. vapor pressure 

3. heat of vaporization 

4. high pressure and gases 

20.4.4 Activities 

Activities can be chosen from the following and correlated to 
concepts; it is not intended that all activities be accomplished 
in the time al lotted. 

1. Verification of heat sources: the sun, earth's interior, 
chemical action, mechanical action, electrical resistance, 
and nuclear reaction. 

2. Determination of linear coefficients of thermal expansion of 
various materials. 

3. Determine the real expansion of liquids as opposed to apparent 
expansion. 

4. Follow the density change of water as it cools to form ice. 

5. Graphing results of the expansion of gases. 

6. Determination of specific heats of various solid and liquid 
materials. 

7. Study the effects of pressure and dissolved material on fusion 
point. 

8. Determine the heat of fusion for water. 

9. Determine the heat of vaporization of water. 

20.4.5 Evaluation 

In evaluating the module, written laboratory reports should be 
an integral portion of the overall assessment. An objective, as 
well as subjective examination may be included as part of the 
overall evaluation. 

20.4.6 References 

Tyler, F. Heat and Thermodynamics . London: Edward Arnold 
Publishers Ltd. , 1966. 

Stollberg, Robert, Faith Fitch Hill and Marvin H. Nygaard. 

Fundamentals of Physics . Canadian ed. Don Mills: Thomas 
Nelson & Sons (Canada), Ltd., 1968. 

Shamos, Morris H. Great Experiments in Physics . New York: Holt, 
Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1959. 

Semat, Henry and Robert Katz. Physics . Toronto: Holt, Rinehart 
and Winston of Canada Ltd., 1958. 

Noakes, G. R. A Textbook of Heat . New York: Macmillan & Co. 
Ltd., 1965. 



68 



Genzer, Irwin, and Philip Youngner. Physics , Teacher's edition, 
Morristown, New Jersey: Silver Burdett-General Learning 
Corporation, 1973. 



Dull, Charles E., H. 
Modern Physics . 
Inc., 1964. 



Clark Metcalfe, and John E. Williams. 
New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 



69 



PHYSICS 20 
ELECTIVE 



20 . 5 PHYSICS OF THE ENVIRONMENT 

20.5.1 Objectives 

A. To show the effect that developing technology has on health. 

B. To promote an awareness of the moral and ethical problems 
in the use and misuse of science. 

C. To show that technology can help man on one hand and pollute 
his environment on the other. 

D. To show students some of the results from the improper use of 
chemicals. 

20.5.2 Conc epts 

A. Air pollution. 

1. Industrial plants are increasing the amount of SO2, NO2 
and CO2 in the atmosphere. 

2. The automobile produces smog (smoke and fog). 

3. Government standards and industry influence. 

B. Water pollution. 

1. Towns and cities are dumping their sewage into rivers, 
lakes, and oceans. 

2. Oil spills from tankers on the ocean. 

3. Future supply of drinking water for man. 

C. Sound pollution. 

1. Heavy rock music can produce partial deafness through 
continued exposure. 

2. Motorcycles, snowmobiles, racing cars with headers, cars 
with dual exhausts and Hollywood mufflers, ..., the louder 
the noise, the more power, ... but how is man's hearing 
affected? 

D. Radiation pollution. 

1. The propel lant in aerosol cans is destroying the ozone 
layer in the atmosphere which absorbs cosmic rays. 

2. Nuclear bombs produce fallout. 

E. Thermal pollution. 

1. Man is increasing the average temperature on Earth through 
his activities. This effects polar ice caps and growing 
seasons. 



70 



F. Electromagnetic pollution 

1. High tension electrical power lines and plant and animal 
life. 

2. Microwave signals and human health. 

G. Nuclear power research. 

1. The ethics of nuclear research and development. 
H. Moral responsibilities of a scientist. 

1. Relationship between pursuit of knowledge and conscience. 
Should a scientist pursue knowledge without conscience? 

2. The role of science and ethics in the development of 
nuclear bombs, chemical warfare, missiles, food additives, 
dangerous chemicals, and genetics. 

3. The relationship between moral responsibility and scienti- 
fic curiosity. 



20.5.3 References 



Environment News . Edmonton: Alberta Environment. (9820 - 106 
Street, Edmonton) 

Paul, Douglas, Denny Peirce, and Kenneth Stief. Physics: A Human 
Endeavour: Unit 3 Energy and the Conservation Laws . Toronto: 
Holt, Rinehart and Winston of Canada, Ltd., 1976. 

The De-Energizer . Ottawa: Department of Energy, Mines and Resources 

The Scholastic World , March 10, 1977; October 7, 1976. 

Dyne, Peter J. Managing Nuclear Wastes 
Atomic Energy of Canada. 



71 



PHYSICS 20 
ELECTIVE 



20.6 SIMPLE MACHINES 

20.6.1 Objectives 

A. To promote an understanding of the role that science has had 
in the development of societies. 

B. To emphasize fundamental ideas of mechanics. 

C. To promote the application of mathematics in science. 

D. To promote skill in the manipulation of materials. 

20.6.2 Concepts 

A. A machine is a device for advantageous application of a force. 

B. A machine can: 

1. multiply the applied force 

2. change the direction of the applied force, or 

3. multiply the distance that an applied force moves. 

C. The actual mechanical advantage is found by dividing the 
resistance by the effort. 

D. The ideal mechanical advantage is found by dividing the effort 
distance by the resistance distance. 

E. In an ideal machine, work is neither gained nor lost. The 
work output is exactly equal to the work input. 

F. The work input is equal to the effort times the distance 
through which the effort acts. 

G. The work output is equal to the resistance times the distance 
the resistance is moved. 

H. Friction always opposes motion so that no machine is 100% 
efficient. 

I. The per cent efficiency of a machine is the work output divided 
by the work input times one hundred. 

J. The work input is equal to the work output plus the work loss 
due to friction and other reasons. 

K. The relative position of the resistance, effort and fulcrum 
determines the class of lever. 

L. The law of the lever states that the effort times the effort 
distance is equal to the resistance times the resistance 
distance. 



72 

20.6.3 Topics 

A. Simple machines. 

1. History and development of the lever, wheel, wedge, screw 
and pulley. 

2. The lever: (a) first class, (b) second class, 
(c) third class. 

3. The pulley: single fixed, single moveable. 

4. The wheel and axle. 

5. The inclined plane. 

6. The wedge. 

7. The screw. 

8. Compound machines. 

B. Applications 

Simple machines are illustrated by the following examples: 
crowbar, jackscrew, bottle opener, broom, fishing pole, hammer, 
wheelbarrow, seesaw, nutcracker, windlass, scissors, shears, 
bicycle pedal, steering wheel, screwdriver, jawbone, forearm, 
axe, loading ramp, pliers, sugar tongs, camshaft, hydraulic 
press, pulley systems, gears, gear trains, planetary gears, 
block and tackle, etc. 

C. Perpetual motion machines. 

1. A perpetual motion machine is one that, once started, 
would continue to do work without any further input of 
work or energy of any kind. 

2. Only working models are accepted! 

20.6.4 Activities and Demonstrations 

The mechanical advantage, force ratio, velocity ratio, and efficiency 
can be determined for any machines that are set up. 

20.6.5 References 

Brinkerhoff, Richard F. Exploring Physics , New Edition. New York: 
Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., 1959. 

Taffel , Alexander. Physics, Its Methods and Meanings . Boston: 
Allyn and Bacon, 1967. 

Harris, Norman C, et al . Introductory Applied Physics , 2nd edition. 
Toronto: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1963. 

White, Harvey. Physics, An Exact Science. Toronto: D. Van 
Nostrand Company, 1959. 

Burns, Elmer E., et al. Physics, A Basic Science . Toronto: 
D. Van Nostrand Company, 1954. 

Weissman, Simon A. Modern Concepts in Physics . New York: Oxford 
Book Company, 1973. 



73 



Barton, 0. C, et al. Physics, The Fundamental Science . Toronto: 
Holt, Rinehart & Winston of Canada, 1967. 

Blackwood, Osgoode H., et al. High School Physics , Revised 
Edition. Toronto: Ginn and Company, 1961. 

Paul, D., et al . Physics, A Human Endeavou r :Unit 3, Energy and 
the Conservation Laws. Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and Winston 
of Canada Ltd., 1975. 

Basford, Leslie. The Science of Movement. New York: Foundations 
of Science Library, Greystone Press. 

"Perpetual Motion Machines", Scientific American, January 1968. 



74 



PHYSICS 20 
ELECTIVE 



20.7 PHYSICS AND PERSONAL SAFETY 

20.7.1 Objectives 

The student should gain in the following respects. 

A. Skill in applying physical principles to everyday activities 
and situations. 

B. Ability to recognize some hazards not ordinarily covered by 
rules and regulations. 

C. Understanding of reasons for some existing safety rules and 
regulations. 

D. Appreciation of the relevance of physics. 

E. Appreciation of the possibility of finding new approaches 
to practical problems through analysis in physical terms. 

20.7.2 Preamble 

This is not a safety manual supported by arguments based on 
physics. 

Even in matters like personal safety where our concern and our 
experience are great, we often limit ourselves to shallow thinking 
which runs and reruns the same circular course. In the case of 
personal safety, we tend to await the statistics of injury and 
death to amplify our thinking. 

Let us take an analytical and perhaps somewhat novel approach to 
the problem of personal safety and see if it yields any insights. 
We are constrained by having to use basic physics presented in 
only Physics 10, Physics 20 and earlier grades. 

Let us start by asking the question, " What physical phenomena 
expose us to injury? " 

The outline which follows will propose some answers and examine 
them. The student should propose and examine some answers of his 
own to the question above. 



75 



20.7.3 Concepts and Subconcepts 



20.7.4 Activities 



Energy Concentrations are Often 
Dangerous. 

Kinetic energy concentrations 
can expose us to injury. 

a. The kinetic energy of your 
own body illustrates the 
dangerous aspect. 

i. In general, greater 
energy causes greater 
danger. 

ii . The danger can be 
minimized by reducing 
speeds, providing 
shock absorbing sys- 
tems, providing means 
of gradual decelera- 
tion, in general by 
avoiding sudden trans- 
formations of the 
energy. 



b. 



Small high speeded bodies 
are a problem. 

i . Bullets are typical 
of this danger. 

Objects driven by 
high speed rotors are 
dangerous. 



n 



m 



IV. 



Particles driven by 
streams of compressed 
gases are dangerous. 



The dangers from small 
high speeded bodies can 
be minimized by 
controlling the direc- 
tion of the motion or 
by avoiding the paths 
along which they move. 



Calculate the kinetic energy of 
your own body as you 

1 . run fast 

2. ride a bicycle 

3. drive fast in an automobile 

4. circle the earth as an astro- 
naut. 

Design a container that will enable 
you to drop an egg or some other 
fragile object from a great height 
without breaking it. 

Calculate the force required to 
uniformly decelerate a 70 kg body 
travelling at a speed of 50 km/h 
so that it slows down to a stop 
over a distance of 20 cm. 



Obtain the necessary data and 
calculate the kinetic energies for 
some bullets or pellets. 

Calculate the velocity of the tip 
of a power lawn mower rotor and 
hence the possible speed of a small 
stone struck by it. 

Determine the velocity and kinetic 
energy one might expect to attain 
for a projectile from an old 
fashioned sling shot such as the 
one that David used against Goliath, 

Note the effects from sand blasting 
devices and from air rifles. 

Obtain data on typical air stream 
velocities from technical or 
scientific encyclopedias. 



76 



20.7.3 Concepts and Subconcepts 



20.7.4 Activities 



Large bodies travelling at 
low speeds have enough 
energy to injure. 



d. Danger from large moving 
bodies is avoided by 
staying out of their paths 
of motion or by being able 
to predict and control their 
motion. 

Gravitational potential energy 
can be dangerous. 

a. Heavy objects placed in 
high, unstable positions 
can cause injury. 



Your own body can attain 
dangerous heights. 

Small objects released from 
great heights are danger- 
ous. 

Safety from potential 
energy hazards is attained 
by achieving stable posi- 
tions and adequate support 
for raised bodies. 



Calculate the kinetic energy of 
a small automobile (1 tonne) 
travelling at a speed of 50 km/h. 

Calculate the average force on a 
one tonne load carried by a small 
truck as the brakes are applied to 
bring it from a speed of 100 km/h 
to a dead stop in 5.0 seconds. 
Consider where this force might 
act. 



Calculate the gravitational poten- 
tial energy of one corner (1/4 of 
the mass) of a 2 tonne automobile 
jacked up 20 cm from the garage 
floor. 

Calculate the gravitational 
potential energy of a 20 kg. box 
of books placed on a shelf 2 metres 
above the floor. 

Calculate your gravitational poten- 
tial energy when you are 3 metres 
above the ground. 

Calculate the gravitational 
potential energy of a 0.40 kg 
hammer on a building scaffold 
60 metres from ground level. 

Draw diagrams of a concrete block 
one metre long, 50 cm wide and 
10 cm thick in several positions 
such as the following: 

1. Lying flat on a level surface. 

2. Resting on its 50 x 10 cm side 
on a level surface. 

3. Resting on its 100 x 10 cm end 
on a level surface. 

4. Resting on its 100 x 10 cm end 
on a 15 degree slope. 

Calculate the minimum force required 
to tip it over in each case. 



77 



20.7.3 Concepts and Subconcepts 

3. Energy concentrated by 

storage in compressed elastic 
materials is dangerous. 

a. Compressed gases can be 
dangerous. 



20.7.4 Activities 



b. Steel springs of almost 
any size can constitute 
a hazard. 



Sling shots, spring guns, 
and bows and arrows 
illustrate the same 
principle. 

Danger from energy stored 
in compressed elastic 
materials is minimized by 
carefully identifying all 
such energy concentrations. 



4. Heat concentrations often 
cause injury. 

a. Most explosions are the 
results of concentrations 
of heat energy. 



Slow accumulations of 
heat can be dangerous. 
Heat from electrical 
resistance and from slow 
oxidation can be dangerous 
when insulation prevents 
heat dissipation. 

Danger from gradual build 
up of heat from slow heat 
producing sources can be 
minimized by means of heat 
dissipation systems. Often 
air circulation is suffi- 
cient. 



Calculate the initial acceleration 
of an 80 gram piece of steel 10 cm^ 
in area leaving a bursting container 
under a pressure of 15 megapascals. 
How fast would the piece of steel 
be gaining after moving 1.0 cm? 

Test a steel spring of any type 
to find what percentage of the 
energy put into the spring by 
compressing it is recovered when 
the spring is released. 



Take note of containers of fluids 
under pressure that must not be 
exposed to heat. There are some 
in most households. 

Examine a pressure cooker to see 
what safety features are built 
into it. 



Look up the calorific values and 
other characteristics of some 
explosive substances. Make compari 
sons among some of the best known 
explosive materials. 

Try to achieve a high temperature 
by using the sun's rays and a 
magnifying glass or convex mirror. 
Look up kindling temperatures 
for some readily combustible 
substances. Test some of them 
to see how readily they ignite. 

Observe and discuss the means of 

cooling of electric motors, light 

bulbs, chimney flues, and gasoline 

motors. 

Design an experiment to see if a 

small electric light bulb can 

start a fire. 



78 



20.7.3 Concepts and Subconcepts 



20.7.4 Activities 



B. Energy Deficits Can Cause 
Injury. 

1 . Low temperature damages 
tissue. 



Insulation of the human 
body by wearing clothing 
is a common measure against 
this energy deficit. 



3. Starvation is sometimes 
due to an insufficient 
energy supply. 



4. Drowning and suffocation 
cause an energy deficit 
because of an oxygen 
shortage. 

5. Minimizing danger from 
lack of oxygen involves 
maintenance of supply and 
control of consumption. 

Force Amplification Systems 
Can Be Dangerous. 

1. Machines can change small 
forces into large ones 
thereby inconspicuously 
creating hazards. 



Experiment by placing plant tissues 
in a freezer compartment. Refer 
to biology texts to rationalize and 
interpret the results. 

Put a thermometer through a one 
hole stopper in a can or flask 
filled with hot water and note its 
rate of cooling. 

Try various means of clothing 
(insulating) the container to slow 
down the rate of cooling. 

Refer to a biology text to determine 
the amount of energy a person needs 
just to stay alive (basic metabolic 
rate) . 

Discuss minimum food requirements 
in terms of this information. 

Some references on the technology 
of oxygen supply for diving give 
a good account of oxygen requirements 
and supply. 

Compare the oxygen requirement of 
a human body at rest with that of a 
very active one. 



Observe the operation of a meat 
grinder. Consider the force on a 
finger or toe placed between an 
operating bicycle chain and the 
sprocket wheel on which it runs. 

Calculate the force on a finger 
placed between a door and a door 
jamb near the hinge when a normal 
force is applied to the door knob 
to close the door. 



79 



20.7.3 Concepts and Subconcepts 



20.7.4 Activities 



Devices That Concentrate Force 
on a Small Area Can Cause 
Injury. 

Sharp points and edges in 
contact with a body result 
in concentration of any 
force applied. That is, a 
small area experiences an 
extreme pressure. 



Large surfaces exposed 
to wind or water can 
concentrate force danger- 
ously. 



Calculate the pressure in kilo- 
pascals a needle point 0.01 mm^ 
in area when it is pushed by a 1 
newton force. 

Compare this pressure with normal 
atmospheric pressure (about 
100 KPa) or with the pressure in 
a car tire (about 200 KPa more than 
atmospheric pressure). 

Have you observed the push of a 
large boat against a pier because 
of wind or waves? Can you find a 
formula for calculating the force 
of a strong wind on a large flat 
surface such as a wall or drive-in 
theatre screen. 



20.7.5 References 



No specific reference materials are recommended for this elective. 
However, good reference material in several areas is essential. 

The following should be available. 

A. An encyclopedia of science and technology or at least a good 
general encyclopedia written at the student level. 

B. Standard physics texts that cover the topics of basic mechanics 
and heat. 

C. High school biology textbooks or references. 

Other materials that may contribute to the success of the elective 
are: 

- safety manuals 

- operator's instructions for machines and equipment. 

- statistics on the causes of accidents. 

- articles on specific safety measures (e.g., use of seat belts) 



PHYSICS 

30 



Physics 30 
Core 



80 



PHYSICS 30 
(5 Credits) 

Objectives Of The Physics 30 Program: 

The student should: 

30.1 Demonstrate knowledge of the physical principles underlying the topics 
of physics outlined in the course outline. 

30.2 Develop a facility in using scientific processes to identify and to 
solve problems. 

30.3 Develop background knowledge related to social issues of current interest. 

30.4 Gain information and insights into vocational and career opportunities in 
the physics, engineering and allied sciences. 

30.5 Develop the ability to discuss the importance of objectivity in 
scientific research. 

30.6 Recognize and cite evidence of contributions that various investigators 
have made in the development of modern physical theories. 

Organization of Program 

Approximately 70 hours of instructional time shall be devoted to the core topics 
and approximately 45 hours to elective topics. Content of elective units is to 
relate to the core in one of three ways. 

a. an extension of a core topic 

b. an in-depth, intensive study of a core topic 

c. a practical application of a core topic 

Prescribed Core References 

Rutherford, F. James, et al . Project Physics . Unit 4 Light and Electro- 
magnetism. Texts and Handbooks. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 
Inc., 1975. 

Rutherford, F. James, et al . Project Physics Unit 5. Models of the Atom . 
New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1975. 



CONCEPTS AND SUBCONCEPTS 



81 

PHYSICS 30 
CORE 

1/2 2 



30.1 Nature and behavior of light. 
30.1.1 Propagation of light 
A. Light is a form of energy. 
1. Light is essential to life, 



2 1/2 



1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 



Early ideas about light 
and vision. 

The Greeks had some theories 
about light. 

Properties of light 

Light travels in straight 
lines. 

Point sources of light produce 
sharp shadows. 

Galileo attempted to measure 
the speed of light. 

01 af Romer gathered data 

to measure the speed of light. 

Huygens calculated the speed 
of light. 



30.1.2 Reflection and Refraction 

A. A light ray can be reflected, 

B. An uneven surface produces 
diffused reflection. 



SUGGEST ED ACTIVITIES 

Students should be reminded that 
laboratory reports should be a 
complete and clear record of what 
happened. Answers to any question 
in the handbooks are definitely a 
part of helping to understand the 
experiment. A complete record 
should include the object, apparat 
procedure, observations, results 
and conclusion (PHE 1 p. 101) 



" Exp 
Dem, 



What is Light? 
PHE 15.1 p. 



107 



Shadow 
N III ■ 



on 
6 



the Wall 

(parts a 

c) p. 



Etc. 
b, and 
54 



Read 



Velocity of Light 
PPR 4 p. 51 



Experiments using a ray box 
optical disc may be used to 
illustrate these concepts. 



or 



Numbered statements beginning with 30 relate directly to Program of Study statement 

Times are suggestions only and are given in hours. 

More activities are suggested than can be done in the time allotted to the core. 

Teachers should chose the ones which best meet their requirements and should not 

feel restricted to those listed. 

A Key to abbreviations is found on p. 149 



82 



E. 



30.1 
A. 

B. 



When a light ray is reflected, 
the angle of reflection is 
equal to the angle of 
incidence. 

When a light ray moves from 
one medium to another, it 
is refracted. 

Refraction involves a change 
of wavelength and speed as a 
wave goes from one medium 
to another. 

Huygens supported the wave 
model for light; Newton 
prefered the particle model. 



,3 Interference and Diffraction 

Young showed that light rays 
produce interference patterns. 

When a light ray is split into 
beams, interference results if 
two beams are allowed to overlap, 

As the hole through which a 
light ray travels is decreased 
in size, the shadow does not 
become finer. 

Poisson predicted, on the basis 
of Fresnel's wave theory, a 
bright spot in the centre of 
the shadow when a small solid 
disc is placed in a beam of 
light. 



Dem. 
Exp. 

Exp. 

Exp. 

Act 

Dem. 

Exp. 

Dem. 

Act 
Exp. 

Exp. 

Exp. 



Ray of light Being Reflected 
N III - 6 c p. 60 



Act 
Act 

Act 



Reflection 
PHE 15.2 p, 



108 



Refraction of a Beam of 

Light 

PP 4-1 p. 4/4 

The Refraction of Light 
PHE 15.3 p. 109 

Refraction of Solid Particles 
PHE 15.1 p. 116 

Curved Ray of Light 
N III - 6 d p. 58 

Further Refraction Experiments 
N III - 28 p. 140 

The Spectrum 

N III - 29 p. 144 



Thin Film Interference 
PP 4 p. 4/32 

Young's Experiment - The 
Wavelength of Light 
PP 4-2 p. 4/6 

A Crucial Experiment - The 
Nature of Light 
PHE 15.5 p. 113 

Interference with Plastic 
Wave Model and with 
Corrugated Cardboard wave 
Model . 

N III - 35 (parts a and b) 
p. 156 

Poisson 's Spot 
PP4 p. 4/33 

Handkerchief Diffraction 

Grating 

PP4 p. 4/32 

Photographing Diffraction 

Patterns 

PP4 p. 4/32 



83 



E. Light is diffracted by any 
obstacle. 

F. By 1850 the wave theory of 
light is generally accepted. 

30.1.4 Dispersion 3 

A. Newton experienced a problem 
in constructing an 
astronomical telescope. 

B. Newton passed sunlight through 

a prism and obtained a spectrum. 

C. White light is a mixture of all 
colours. 

D. The three primary colours of the 
Additive Theory of Light are 
red, blue and green. 

E. Newton explained the apparent 
colour of natural objects. 

F. The longer a wave is compared 
to the size of an obstacle, the 
less it is scattered by the 
obstacle. 

G. Red light has a longer wave- 
length than blue light. 

H. The blue colour of the sky can 
be explained by dispersion. 

5 Polarization 1 

Newton argued that light has 
some properties different 
from sound. 

B. Part of Newton's argument is 
based on the polarization of 
light. 

C. Since light can be polarized, 
it is propagated by transverse 
waves. 

30.1.6 Deficiencies of the Wave 1/2 
Model 

A. The wave model requires that 
light travel through an 
ether. 

B. Interference and diffraction 
of light require a wave model 
to explain these phenomena. 

C. Interaction of light with some 
atomic particles requires a 
particle model to explain this 
phenomenon. 



Act 



Act 
Exp. 

Act 
Act 



Observing Diffraction 
PHE 15.4 p. 118 



Colour 
PP4 p 



4/33 



The Hidden Complexity of 

Light 

PHE 15.4 p. Ill 



Colour Wheels 
PHE 15.6 p. 



120 



Colour Vision Experiments 
PHE 15.7 p. 120 



Act Double Refraction 
PHE 15.3 p. 117 

Act Polarization 

PHE 15.2 p. 116 

Act Polarized Light 
PP4 p. 4/34 



1 

■m 



.i 



Act Other Examples of Interference 
PHE 15.5 p. 119 



84 



30.2 Electric and Magnetic Fields 
30.2.1 Electric charges and forces 

A. The Lodestone and Amber effect 

1. Electric and magnetic phenomena 
require one body being attracted 
by another other than by 
gravitational force. 

B. Gilbert does not accept 
Effluvium Theory. 

1. The earth is a lodestone. 

2. A needle used on a sphere of 
lodestone formed meridian 
circles converging at opposite 
ends called "poles" 

3. Spheres of influence become 
basis for modern field concept. 

4. Attractive forces exist between 
many electrified and neutral 
objects. 

5. Magnets have two oppositely 
located goins (poles) toward 
which only a few materials are 
attracted. 

C. Electric charges and electric 
forces. 

1. William Gilbert was able to 
differentiate between conductors 
and insultators, thus physics 

no longer limited to the amber 
effect. 

2. Benjamin Franklin explains 
deficiencies, excess and 
normal supplies of "electric 
fluid", in terms of positive 
and negative. 

3. There are three rules governing 
electric nature of matter: 

a. two kinds of electric 
charge 

b. two objects charged alike 
repel each other. 

c. two objects charged 
oppositely attract each 
other. 



Exp, 

Act 

Dem 

Act 

Act 

Act 

Act 



Electrical Forces 
PHE 17.1 p. 103 

The Electroscope 
PHE 17.1 p. 112 

Electrostatics 
PPRB p. 303 

Forces Fields 
PHE 19.2 p. 136 



Bar Magnet 
NF III p 



80 



The Magnetic Field of a 
Permanent Magnet 
SHF p. L63 

Charged Ball 
PP4 p. 4/36 



Exp. The Electrophorous 
PPRB p. 305 

Exp. Electric Forces I 
PP 4-3 p. 4/8 

Act Gilbert's Versorium 
PP 4 p. 4/36 

Exp. Electric Charges 
SHF p. L31 



85 



D. The electric force law 

1. Priestly repeats Franklin's 
experiments and compares 
Newton's conclusion of 
gravitational forces. 

2. Priestly proposes that 
forces exerted by charges 
vary inversely as the square 
of the distance - a 
reasonable parallel to 
Newton's gravitational 
force. 

3. Charles Coulomb provides 
direct experimental evidence 
for inverse square law with 
the torsion balance. 



Exp. Electric Forces II - 
Coulomb's Law 
PP 4-4 p. 4/10 



1 



'qJL 



R= 



Coulomb also demonstrates 
that the magnitude of the 
electric force depends upon 
the magnitudes of the 
charges. 



^A ^B 



'di 



The unit of charge 

The unit of charge is derived 
from current units. To 
comply with SI units, the 
Coulomb is defined as that 
amount of charge passing 
a point in a wire in one 
second when the current is 
one ampere. 

The Coulomb is a relatively 
small amount of charge when 
in motion but when at rest 
represents the charge on 

1 electrons. 

1 . 6 x W^'i 



Exp. Electrical Induction 
PHE 17.2 p. 104 

Act Electrostatic Motors 
PHE 17.3 p. 113 

Act The Electrophorous 
PHE 17.4 p. 113 

Act Kelvin Water Drop 
Generator 
PHE 17.2 p. 112 

Ext. Coulomb's Law 

PHE 17.3 p. 105 



Exp. The Unit of Charge 
PHE 17.4 p. 107 

Read The Electronic Revolution 
PPR4 p. 155 



86 



F. Electrostatic Induction 

1. A charged body can influence 
the charges on another body. 

30.2.2 Forces and fields 

A. Fields 

1. To define a field it must 
be possible to assign a 
numerical value of field 
strength to every point in 
the field. 

2. Scalar fields can be 
illustrated by using intensity 
of light, sound and /or 
temperature. 

3. Vector fields must have a 
magnitude and a direction at 
every point. 

4. Physicists can use their feature 

of the field concept in three ways. 

a. the value of a field at a 
point in space. 

b. the set of all values 
everywhere in space where 
the field exists. 

c. the region of space in 
which the field can be 
detected. 

B. Gravitational fields 2 

1. The gravitational law can be 
rearranged. 

a. The field strength at any 
point is the ratio of the 
net gravitational force 
acting on a test body at 
that point to the mass of 
the test body. 

C. Electric fields similar to 
gravitational fields 

1. The force at a point is 

similarly determined in an electric 

field except for- the presence of 

two kinds of electric charges. 

->• 

2. The direction of vector E is the 

direction of the force exerted 
by the field on a positive 
test charge. 



Act Electric Fields 

PHE 19.1 p. 136 

Exp. Electric Field 
PPRB p. 304 

Exp. Electric Field 
PPRB p. 308 



87 



D. The smallest charge 

1. Robert Millikan combined two 
force fields, gravitational 
and electric, to demonstrate 
that charges in nature are 
made up of whole numbered 
multiples of the smallest 
charge. 



1.6024 X 10 



1 9 



Coulomb 



E. The Law of Conservation of Charge 

1. Franklin from his experiments 
concludes that the net amount 
of electric charge in a 
closed system remains constant 
regardless of what reactions 
occur in the system. 

30.2.3 Moving charges 

A. Electric currents ; 

1. Alessandro Volta produces 

steady electric currents - far 
superior to leyden jars. 

B. Electric potential difference, 
current and power 

1. Electric potential energy 
changes when work is done in 
moving an electric charge from 
one point to another in an 
electric field. 

2, Electric potential difference 
is the ratio of the change in 
electric potential energy A (PE) 
of a charge (q) to the magnitude 
of the charge. 

V = ^ (PE ) 



Exp. Volta's "Pile" 

PHE 18.1 p. 114 

Act Voltaic Pile 

PP 4 p. 4/36 

Act An lU Battery 
PP4 p. 4/36 



3. Moving a charge in an electric 
field requires energy and work 
to be done. The work done is 
measured in volts. 

4. Free from other forces, a 
charged particle in an electric 
field, will accelerate and 
increase in kinetic energy. 

5. The electron gun provides a 
stream of electrons with many 
appl ications. 



88 



6. Electrons in conductors do not 
move freely and are governed by 
Ohm's Law and its parameters, 

I = V/R 

7. Power is a measure of the rate 
of change of energy. 

P = VI 

8. Where Ohm's Law applies, power 
can be measured in terms of the 
resistance of the material through 
which a current blows. 

P = I2 R p = V^ /R 

30.2.4 Moving charges and magnets 8 

A. A magnetic field without a magnet 

1. Christian Oersted discovered 
that electric current affects a 
compass needle by causing the 
needle to swing perpendicular 

to the wire carrying the current. 

2. It was the first instance in 
which a force seemingly did 
not act along a line 
connecting sources of forces. 

3. The left hand rule gives the 
direction of the magnetic field 
surrounding a current carrying 
conductor. 

B. Currents act on currents 

1. The ampere is defined in terms 
of a force existing between 
two current carrying wires. 

C. Magnetic fields and moving charges. 

1. The deflection of charged 
particles within a magnetic 
field demonstrates interaction 
of magnetic fields. 

2. The amount and direction of 
deflection will depend upon the 
velocity of the particle, 
charge on the particle and value 
of the magnetic field strength. 



Read "A Simple Electric Circuit 
Ohm's Law" 
PPR4 p. 143 



V 

.1 



F = k B q 

If the magnetic field is strong 
enough, charged particles may 
become trapped as in Van Allen 
Radiation Belts. 



Exp. Oersted's Discovery 
PHE 19.1 p. 125 

Exp. The Magnetic Field 

Surrounding an Electric 

Current 

SHE p. L65 

Exp. Magnetic Effect of a Current 
NF II 13b p. 35 

Act Electromagnetic Rotation 
Apparatus 
PHE 19.3 p. 136 



Exp. Currents and Forces 
PPRB p. 306 

Exp. Forces on Currents 
PP 4-5 p. 4/13 

Exp. Current Balance 
PPRB p. 327 

Exp. Force on a Current Carrying 
Wire in a Magnetic Field 
N V Exp. 21 

Exp. Currents, Magnets and Forces 
PP 4-6 p. 4/18 
PPRB p. 307 
PPRB p. 317 

Act Magnetic Field Intensity 
PP 4 p. 4/36 

Exp. Electron Beam Tube 
PPRB p. 319 

Exp. Electron Beam Tube 
PP 4-7 p. 4/21 



89 



Exp. Electron Beam Tube II 
PP 4-8 p. 4/24 

Act Inside a Radio Tube 
PP4 p. 4/38 

Read "Radiation Belts Around 
the Earth" 
PPR4 p. 249 



30.3 Electromagnetic radiation 

30.3.1 Electromagnetic Theory 2 

A, Principles of electro- 
magnetism as established by 
Oersted, Henry Ampere and 
Faraday. 

1. An electric current in a 
conductor produces magnetic 
lines of force that surround 
the conductor. 

2. A conductor moving across 
an external magnetic field 
has a current induced in 
itself. 

B. Maxwell's mathematical model 
of magnetic induction 

1. An electric field that 
changes with time generates 
a magnetic field. 

2. Displacement current is 

the rate at which the charge 
displacement changes. 

3. A changing electric field 

in space produces a magnetic 
field. 

4. A changing magnetic field 

in space produces an electric 
field. 

30.3.2 The propagation of 2 
electromagnetic waves 

A. Changing electric fields 

induce magnetic fields which 

in turn induce electric fields 

setting up an unending sequence of events 

1. Electric and magnetic fields 
varying with time can produce 
a disturbance that moves away from 
their source and can be detected 
as perpenducular electric and 
magnetic disturbances in 

neighbouring regions. 



Read "On The Induction of 
Electric Currents" 
PPR4 p. 229 

Read "James Clark Maxwell", 
Part II 
PPR4 p. 195 



Read "The Relationship of 

Electricity and Magnetism" 
PPR4 p. 233 



90 



Speed and propagation of waves 
depends upon stiffness and 
density of the medium. 

1. Using a mechanical model of 
the ether. Maxwell related 
stiffness to the electric 
field and density to 
magnetic field. 

2. The ratio of these factors 
is the same for strengths of 
all fields and determines the 
wave speed. 

3. Light consists of the 
transverse undulations of the 
same medium which is the 
cause of electric and 
magnetic disturbances. 

4. Light, electric and magnetic 
propagations occur at the same 
speed and unify the separate 
sciences, providing a path 
for the development of 
quantum mechanics and 
relativity. 

Evidence for the electro- 
magnetic spectrum 



Read "The Electromagnetic 
Field" 
PPR4 p. 241 



30.3.3 



A. Hertz investigates evidence of 
electromagnetic waves at 
various frequencies. 

1. Hertz using an induction 
coil as a propagator detects 
with a wire conductor 
electromagnetic waves. 

2. Hertz demonstrates that 
electromagnetic waves have 
all the properties similar 
to that of 1 ight. 

3. Lebedev suggests that 
radiation can possibly exert 
pressure. 

30.3.4 The electromagnetic 

spectrum 2 

A. Energy and moving charges together 
produce radiation away from a 
source as an electromagnetic 
wave. 



Read "The Electronic Revolution' 
PPR4 p. 155 



Read "High Fidelity" 
PPR4 p. 175 

Exp. Waves and Communication 
PP 4-9 p. 4/27 



91 



1. Radio waves are long and 
easily diffracted. These 
waves can be modulated 
intensity (amplitude) or 
by variation (frequency). 

2. Radar and Television detect 
waves of about 1 metre 
wavelength and are subject 
to interference by 
reflection. 

3. Infrared or microwave 
radiation is the range of 
10"^ to 10"^"* metres and is 
emitted by heated bodies. 

4. Electromagnetic radiation 
sensitive to visual 
reception is between 7 x 10 "^ 
and 4 x 10"^ metres. 

5. Ultra violet region of the 
spectrum has waves slightly 
shorter than visible waves. 

6. X-rays are propagated by 
electrons stopping suddenly 
when hitting a metallic 
conductor. 

a. The maximum frequency 
is determined by the 
energy with which the 
electrons strike the 
target. 

b. The energy is determined 
by voltage applied. 

c. X-rays can produce 
interference patterns 
which can be used to 
determine crystal 
structure. 

7. Gamma radiation is emitted 
by unstable atomic nuclei i 
of radioactive materials. 

30.3.5 The ether concept 

A. Mechanical model is compared 
to mathematical model for 
transmission of electric and 
magnetic forces. 

1, Experiments to detect 

motion relative to the ether 
failed. Michelson and Morley 
did not reveal an ether wind. 



92 



2. A hypothesis suggested that 
objects moving with the speed 
of light changed in size to 
make any relat've motion 
undetectable. 

3. Einstein showed that equations 
of electromagnetism and 
mechanics can be written to fit 
the principle of relativity, 
which states that the same laws 
of mechanics apply in each of 
two frames of reference which 
have a constant velocity 
relative to each other. 

4. Einstein conjectured that the 
speed of light is the same for 
all observers when moving 
through free space. This 
resolved the question of the 
ether moving relative to the 
motion of the observers. 

5. The need for an all prevading 
ether is removed by Einstein. 

30.4 Structure of matter 

30.4.1 Chemical nature of the atom 

A. Dal ton proposed an atomic theory 
which accounted for the law of 
conservation of mass. 

B. The law of definite proportions 
could be explained by Dalton's 
theory. 

C. Dalton's theory was also 
consistent with the law of 
multiple proportions. 

D. Dalton's interpretation of 
experimental facts made possible 
some conclusions concerning 

the nature of atoms . 

E. Dalton's work produced the 
possibility of determining 
numerical values for atomic 
mass. 

F. Elements have different atomic 
mass and capacities for chemical 
combination. 



Read 



"On the Method of 
Theoretical Physics' 
PPR4 p. 5 



Act 



Read 



Dalton's Puzzle 
PP5 p. 5/20 

Failure and Success 
PPR5 p. 1 



93 



G. The understanding of the atom 
was enhanced by discoveries in 
electrochemistry. 

1. Volta's electric cell made 
it possible to study the 
process of electrolysis. 

2. The electrical behavior of 
chemical substances provided 
a means of decomposing 
compounds to elements 
important to industry. 

H. Michael Faraday discovered two 
fundamental laws of 
electrolysis. 

1. The amount of chemical change 
produced in electrolysis is 
proportional to the product 
of the current and the time. 

2, The amount of an element 
liberated from an electro- 
lyte by a given amount of 
electricity depends on the 
element's atomic mass and 
its combining capacity. 

30.4.2 Electric nature of the atom 

A. The periodicity in the proper- 
ties of the elements led to the 
idea of atomic structure. 

B. The discovery of cathode rays 
led to experiments which 
established their properties. 

1 . Rays with the same 
properties are produced 
independent of the nature of 
the cathodes. 

2. Rays travel in straight lines 
perpendicular to the emitting 
surface. 

3. A magnetic field defects the 
path of cathode rays. 

4. Cathode rays can cause some 
chemical reactions to occur 
which are identical to the 
chemical reactions produced 
by light. 

C. J.J. Thompson conducted a series 
of experiments which indicated 
that cathode rays are negatively 
charged particles. 



Exp, 
Act, 
FL 



Act, 



Act. 



Exp 



Electrolysis 

PP 5-1 p. 5/4 

Electrolysis of Water 
PP5 p. 5/20 

Production of Sodium 

by Electrolysis 

PP L45 p. 5/29 



Periodic Table 
PP5 p. 5/20 

Cathode Rays in a Crookes 

Tube 

PP5 p. 5/23 



Cathode Rays 
PHE 21.1 p 



123 



94 



1 The behavior of cathode rays 
in magnetic and electric fields 
can be predicted. 

2. The ratio of the charge of a 
particle to its mass is denoted 
by q/m. 

3. Cathode rays from different 
materials all have a q/m value 
of 1.76 X 10^^ coulombs/kilo- 
gram. 

4. Cathode rays form a part of all 
matter. 

5. The electron is one of the 
elementary particles. 

Robert Millikan measured the 
charge of the electron. 

1. In Millikan's oil -drop 
experiment the electric force 
on a particle (qt) is balanced 
by the force of gravity 

(mg). 

2. The mass of a single electron 
may be determined knowing the 
charge q and the ratio 



%/^- 



30.4.3 Quantum behavior of matter 

A. Heinrich Hertz discovered the 
phenomenon of the photoelectric 
effect. 

1. Photoelectric particles have 
the same properties as 
electrons. 

2. All substances exhibit the 
photoelectric effect. 

3. New ideas must be introduced 
to account for these 
experimental results. 

4. The quantum concept developed 
from explanations of the 
photoelectric effect. 

5. Some photoelectric phenomena 
cannot be explained by classical 
electromagnetic theory. 

B. Einstein explained the photo- 
electric effect. 

1. Einstein assumed that energy 
is not distributed evenly 
over an expanding wave front. 



Exp, 



Exp. 



Exp. 
Exp. 
Exp. 

Exp. 



Act. 



Dem. 



The Charge-to-Mass 
Ratio for an Electron 
PP 5-2 p. 5/7 

The Mass of the Electron 
PSSC IV-12 p. 79 



Driving Force and Terminal 

Velocity 

PSSC IV-5 p. 67 

The Measurement of the 
Elementary Charge 
PP 5-3 p. 5/10 

The Millikan Experiment 
PSSC IV-6 p. 69 



The Photoelectric Effect 
PP 5-4 p. 5/13 



Lighting an Electric Lamp 
With a Match 
PP5 p. 5/23 

'Wholesale' Photo Electric 

Effect 

N137 p. 264 

Photoelectric Effect 
PSSC Film 



95 



2. Light energy comes in packets. 
Each packet is a quantum of 
energy. 

3. Einstein's photoelectric 
equation is upheld by 
experimental results. 

4. Millikan established a straight 
line relationship between the 
frequency of absorbed light 
and the maximum kinetic energy 
of the photoelectrons. 

5. Max Planck introduced the 
quantum of energy concept. 

6. The photoelectric effect cannot 
account for other properties of 
light. 

C. Roentgen's discovery of x-rays 
did not fit the accepted ideas 
about electromagnetic waves. 

1. X-rays have several properties. 

2. X-rays act like electro- 
magnetic radiation of yery short 
wave length. 

3. X-rays have quantum 
properties. 

4. X-rays can be used in medical 
diagnosis. 

D. Many models of the atom were 
devised at the end of the 19th 
century. 

1. An atomic model was proposed 
by J. J. Thompson. 

30.4.4 Rutherford-Bohr Model of 
the atom 

A. An indication of atomic structure 
was provided by the emission and 
absorption of light by atoms. 

1. Light from a radiating gas 
is a mixture of only a few 
definite colors. 

2. John Herschel suggested that 
each gas could be identified 
from its line spectrum. 



F. Photons 
PSSC Film 



FL. Thompson Model of the 

Atom 

PP L46 p. 5/30 



Exp. Spectroscopy 

PP 5-5 p. 5/17 

F. Rutherford Atom 
PSSC Film 



96 



B. The emission line spectrum 
of hydrogen is a converging 
series of specific color. 

1. Jakob Balmer provided an 
empirical relation which 
fits the wavelengths of 
the lines from the emission 
spectrum of hydrogen. 

2, Improvements in techniques 
have allowed new regions 
of the spectrum to be 
explored . 

C. Scattering experiments 
interpreted by Rutherford led 
to the concept of the nuclear 
atom. 

1. The scattering experiment 
is important in nuclear 
physics. 

2. Geiger and Marsden conducted 
the scattering experiment 
which led to the modern 
model of the atom. 

D. Scattering experiments made it 
possible to determine nuclear 
charge and size. 

1. Each nucleus has a positive 
charge Q, numerically equal 
to Zq^ 

2. The size of the nucleus may 
be estimated from scattering 
experiments. 

E. Bohr introduced two postulates 
designed to account for the 
existence of stable electron 
orbits and discrete emission 
spectra. 

1. If the electron orbits the 
nucleus of an atom, the 
energy loss will cause its 
collapse. 

2. A stable atom can result 
if the electrons behave 

1 ike standing waves. 



Exp 



The Hydrogen Spectrum 
PHE 22.1 p. 138 



FL. 

Exp, 

Act, 



Rutherford Scattering 
PP L47 p. 5/31 

Simulated Nuclear 

Collisions 

PSSC III-IO p. 53 

Rutherford Scattering 
PHE 22.3 p. 142 



Read 



The Teacher and The Bohr 
Theory of the Atom 
PPR5 p. 105 



97 



3. Emission or absorption of 
radiation corresponds to a 
transition between 
stationary states. 

F. It is possible to calculate the 
size of the hydrogen atom using 
Bohr' s model . 

1. The atomic sizes calculated 
are similar to spacings 
observed in crystals. 

G. The potential energy of the 
electron can be calculated 
using the Bohr model . 

H. The Bohr model could be used to 
explain all emission and 
absorption lines in the 
hydrogen spectrum. 

1. There is a correlation 
between experimental data 
and predicted wavelengths of 
the spectrum lines. 

2. Separate energy states 
correspond to different 
electron orbits. 

I. Discrete energy states were 
confirmed by the Franck- 
Hertz experiment. 

1. Atoms have excited 
stationary states with discrete 
energy values greater than the 
lowest energy state. 

2. A correlation exists between 
energy gained by atoms in 
collision and observed spectrum 
lines. 

J. Bohr found a way of relating 
his atomic model to the 
periodic table. 

1. Chemical and physical properties 
of an element depend upon 
electron arrangement. 

2. Chemical behavior is related 
to atomic structure. 

3. Examples may be taken from 
the periodic table to support 
the Bohr theory. 



Exp. The Spectrum of Hydrogen 
and Planck's Constant 
PSSC IV-15 p. 84 



98 



30.4.5 Inadequacies of atomic 
models 

A. Discrepancies exist between 
theory and experiment. 

1. Only the spectrum of the 
hydrogen atom can be 
predicted accurately. 

2. Electric and magnetic fields 
affect emission and absorption 
lines. 

3. The relative intensity of 
spectral lines is difficult 
to predict. 

4. Untestable concepts are 
required (orbitals). 

B. A better theory of atomic 
structure was necessary, 

1. Stationary states must be 
explained by using quantum 
concepts. 

2. Useful theories use quantum 
concepts. 

30.5 Modern physical theories 

30.5.1 Some results of relativity 
theory. 

A. Experiments involving high speed 
particles reveal differences 
between relativistic mechanics 
and Newtonian mechanics. 

B. Relativistic mechanics suggests 
that the mass of a body should 
vary with speed according 

to the formula: 

m 



Read Mathematics and Relativity 
PPR 5 p. 49 

Read Outside and Inside the 
Elevator 
PPR 5 p. 89 



/ 



1 



Experiments provide evidence 
for the inadequacy of Newtonian 
physics for high speed particles 

Einstein proposed that mass and 
energy are equivalent. 



mc 



99 



30.5.2 Particle-like behavior 
of Radiation 

A. If a quantum has energy, 
then it also has momentum. 

B. The Compton effect was a 
successful demonstration 
of the momentum of a 
quantum. 

C. Photons act both like 
particles of matter and 
waves. 

30.5.3 Wave-like behavior of 
particles 

A. Wave-particle dualism has 
been applied to electrons 
and other atomic particles. 

B. Some wave properties of the 
electron can be measured. 

C. De Broglie's relation can 
be applied to Bohr's 
angular momentum postulate 
for the electron in the 
hydrogen atom. 

30.5.4 Significance of mathem- 
atical atomic model 

A. Schrodinger developed an 
equation which defines the 
wave properties of electrons 
and predicts particle-like 
behavior. 

B. Quantum mechanics does not 
supply a physical model of 
the atom. 

30.5.5 Heinsenberg's Uncertainty 
principle 

A. Measurements of events in 
nature can be made using 
reflected visible light. 

B. The wavelength of radiation 
has to be comparable to 

or smaller than the dimensions 
of an object to accurately 
locate it. 

C. It is difficult to locate atomic 
particles using photons because 
of the Compton effect. 



TR 



"Particles and Waves" 
Physics for the Inquiring 
Mind p. 737 



F. 



Matter Waves 
PSSC Film 

Interference of Photons 
PSSC Film 



Act. 



Read 



Read 



TR 



Turntable Oscillator Patterns! 
Resembling De Broglie Waves 
PP5 p. 5/27 



The New Landscape of Science 
PPR5 p. 109 

I am This Whole World: 
Erwin Schrodinger 
PPR5 p. 151 



"Uncertainty Principle" 
Physics for the Inquiring 
Mind p. 746 



100 



D. The more accurately the 
electron is located, the 
less accurately we know 
its velocity. 

E. The uncertainty principle 

can be expressed quantitatively. 

30.5.6 Probability interpretation 
of quantum mechanics 

A. Schrodinger's wave equations 
give us the probabilities for 
finding particles. 

B. Wave amplitude may be used 
to represent the probability 
of an electron being at a 
particular location. 

C. The quantum theory gives a 
mathematical representation 
used to predict interaction 
with particles, fields and 
radiation. 

D. Our ideas of waves and 
particles do not apply on the 
atomic scale. 

E. Einstein expressed his faith 
that there are more basic and 
deterministic laws yet to 

be found. 



Read 



The Fundamental Idea 
of Wave Mechanics 
PPR5 p. 161 



Read 



Read 



Read 



Einstein 
PPR 5 



p. 25 



The Evolution of the 
Physicists Picture of Nature 
PPR 5 p. 131 I 

Looking for a New Land 
PPR 5 p. 221 



References 

Nuffield Foundation. Nuffield Physics - Guide to Experiments V 
London: The Longman Group, 1967. 

Nuffield Foundation. Nuffield Physics - Teacher's Guide V 
London: The Longman Group, 1967. 

Paul, Douglas; Denny Peirce and Kenneth Stief. Physics: A Human Endeavour. Unit 
4 The Nature of Light and Sound. 
Canada, Limited, 1976. 



Physics 

Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and Winston of 



Paul, Douglas, Denny Peirce and Kenneth Stief. Physics: A Human Endeavou r. Unit 
5. Electricity Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and Winston of Canada, Limited, 
1976. 



Physical Science Study Committee. Physics second ed. Vancouver: 
Clark Publishing Co., Ltd., 1965. 

Rogers, E.M. Physics for the Inquiring Mind 

New Haven: Princeton University Press, 1960. 



The Copp 



101 



Rutherford, F. James, et al . Project Physics. Unit 4 Light and Electromagnetism 
Texts and Handbook. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1975, 

Rutherford, F. James, et al . Project Physic s . Unit 5 Models of the Atoms 
Text and Handbook, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1975. 

Rutherford, F. James, et al. Project Physics Reader. Unit 4 Light and 
Electromagnetism . New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1975. 

Rutherford, F. James, et al . Project Physics Reader. Unit 5 Models of the Atoms 
New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1975. 

Rutherford, F. James, et al. Project Physics Resource Book . New York: Holt, 
Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1975, 

Stollberg, Robert, Faith Fitch Hill and Marvin H. Nygaard. Frontiers of Physics , 
Canadian ed, Don Mills: Thomas Nelson & Sons (Canada) Ltd,, 1968. 

Stollberg, Robert, Faith Fitch Hill and Marvin H. Nygaard. Fundamentals of 

Physics . Canadian ed. Don Mills: Thomas Nelson & Sons (Canada) Ltd., 1968. 



Physics 30 
Electives 



102 



PHYSICS 30 

ELECTIVE 

GEOMETRIC OPTICS 
0.1.1 General Objectives 

A. To promote an understanding of the skill and methods used by 
physicists in observing, hypothesizing, classifying, experimenting, 
and interpreting data. 

B. To develop the process of logical reasoning. 

C. To emphasize fundamental ideas and definitions. 

D. To develop the skill of using simple mathematics to solve problems. 

0.1.2 Co ncepts And Activities 

A. Plane Mirrors Form Images 

1. Define: normal, angle of incidence, angle of reflection, 
paral lax. 

2. Describe images: virtual, erect, same size as object. 

3. Locate images in plane mirrors using ray diagrams. 

4. Verify laws of reflection. 

5. Locate images formed by plane mirrors using pins. 

6. Work some problems locating position of image and size. 

B. Curved Mirrors Can Form Images 

1. Define: a. concave, convex mirrors 

b. principal axis, principal focus, centre of curvature, 
at infinity, spherical aberration 

2. Describe images: a. real or virtual 

b. erect or inverted 

c. enlarged, diminished, same size 

3. Illustrate image location using ray diagrams. 

4. Demonstrate a shaving mirror 

5. Use an optical bench to locate images formed by curved mirrors 
when object is: 

a. at infinity 

b. outside centre of curvature 

c. at centre of curvature 

d. between centre of curvature and focal 
length 



103 

e. between focal length and mirror 

f. at focal length 



Solve Droblems using: 1 1 _ 1 



H. 
1 


D. 
1 


H 



D 





7. Solve magnification problems using: 



Images Are Formed By Lenses 

1. Define: a. concave, convex, plano-concave, plano-convex, 

concavo-convex 

b. refraction, centre of curvature, focal length 

c. convergent and divergent lenses 

2. Describe images: a. real or virtual 

b. erect or inverted 

c. enlarged, diminished, same size 

3. Illustrate image location using ray diagrams. 

4. Find the focal point of a magnifying glass. 

5. Demonstrate convergent and divergent lenses using ray box. 

6. Use optical bench to locate images formed by lenses vihen 
object: 

a. at infinity. 

b. outside centre of curvature 

c. at centre of curvature 

d. between centre of curvature and focal length 

e. at focal length 

f. between focal length and lens 

7. Solve the problem using: 1^1^ 1 

T~ ~dT T" 

1 

8. Solve magnification problems using: H. D. 

m = = 







30.1,3 References 



Basford, Leslie, et al , The Rays of Light , New York: Foundations 
of Science Library, Greystone Press. 

Paul, D., et al , Physics: A Human Endeavour :Llnit 4, The Nature of 
Light and Sound . Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and Winston of Canada ( 
Ltd., 1974. ^ 



104 

Barton, O.C., et a1 , Physics, The Fundamental S cien ce. Toronto: 
Holt, Rinehart and Winston of Canada, 1967. 

Weissman, Simon A., 'lodern _Co_ncepts_ J n_ Physics. New York: Oxford 
Book Company, 1973 

Lehrman, Robert L., et al , Foundations ofPhysjcs. Toronto: Holt, 
Rinehart and Winston, 1969 

Genzer, Irwin, et al , Physics. Tlorristown, New Jersey: Silver 
Burdett, 1973. 

Williams, John E., et al. Modern Physics. Toronto: Holt, Rinehart, 
and Winston of Canada Ltd., 1976. 

Murphy, James T., et al , P hysics , Pr inciples and Problems. Columbus: 
Charles E. Merrill Publishing, 1973. 

Murphy, James T. , Laboratory Physics. Columbus: Charles E. Merrill 
Publishing, 1977. 

Williams, John E., et al. Exercises and Experi ments in P hysic s. 
Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1972. 

Genzer, Irwin, Laboratory Inv estigations in Physics . Morristown, 
New Jersey: Silver Burdett, 1969. 

Brincherhoff , Richard F., Exploring Physics, New E dition. Harcourt, 
Brace and World, 1959. 

Taffel , Alexander, Phy sics, Its Metho ds and M eanings . Boston: Allyn 
and Bacon, 1967. 

Harris, Norman C, et al , Introduc tory Ap plied Physics , 2nd edition. 
Toronto: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1963. 

White, Harvey, Physics, An E xact Science . Toronto: D. Van Nostrand 
Company, 1959. 

Burns, Elmer, E., et al , Physics, A Basic Science . Toronto: D Van 
Nostrand Company, 1954. 



105 



PHYSICS 30 

ELECTIVE 



30.2 P P^i^ A_L_ n JST RuriEjrrs 

30.2.1 Objectives 

A. To promote an understanding of the role science has had in the 
development of societies. 

B. To show the interaction of science and technology. 

C. To promote an awareness of science for leisure time activities. 

D. To promote an understanding of and development of skill in the 
methods used by scientists. 

E. To promote an assimilation of scientific knowledge. 

F. To contribute to the development of science as a vocation. 

30.2.2 Conce p ts and Activities 

A. Use of Light Through Trial and Error 

1. Difference between spearing animals on land and a fish in 
water. 

2. Refraction causes magnification. 

3. Show apparent bending of stick in water, a coin in water, 
apparent depth of pond. Explain using ray diagrams. 

B. Light Bends In Passing From One Medium To Another 

1. Law of refraction, normal, angle of incidence, angle of refrac- 
tion, refractive index. 

2. Dioptics (science of lenses) 

3 Refraction in a tank of water, law of refraction, examples 

using Snel 1 ' s law: 

. ^ sin 1 

sin r 

C. Imperfection Of Early Lenses 

1. Spherical aberration. 

2. Draw diagrams showing undesirable focusing of light using single 
lens. 

D. A Telescope Uses Lenses 

1. Focal length, objective leans, eyepiece lens, magnification. 

2. Distance between the two lenses: F + f - 1 (length of telescope) 

3. Magnification: F 

'■^ -" f 



106 

4, Focus sun's rays using a convex lens. 

The Invention Of the Telescope Has A History 

1. Telescopes of Hans Lippershey, Galileo, Kepler, Hevelius 

2. The reflecting telescope 

3. Changes in the telescope 

4. Modification of Newton's telescope 

5. Use of cameras in modern telescopes 

6. Refracting telescopes 

7. Advantages of refracting over reflecting telescopes 

8. Build a simple telescope using an optical bench and ray 
diagrams to illustrate early models 

9. Visit a planetarium 

10. Build a model telescope 

Binoculars 
Activities 

1. Examine a pair of binoculars for adjustments and magnification 

2, Make a large diagram showing construction of binoculars and image 
formation 

Good Lenses Show No Color Separation 

1. Spectrum 

2. Refractive index 

3. Achromatic doublet 

4. Crown glass 

5. Fl int glass 

6. Try ray box experiments and separation of white light by a 
prism 

The Microscope 

1. Structure 

2. History 

3. Invention 

4. Early forms 

5. Build a simple microscope using an optical bench 

6. Study and use the microscope from biology laboratory 
The Camera 

1. Early camera 

2. Structure 

3. Light regulation 



107 

4. Uses of photography 

5. The movie camera 

6. Examine the lens system of a camera 

7. Examine a movio projector 
J. Vision Defects 

1. Myopia 

2. Hypermetropia 

3. Presbyopia 

4. Astigmatism 

5. Colour blindness 

6. Construct ray diagrams showing why vision defects occur 

7. Show how vision defects may be corrected using the proper lenses 

30.2.3 References 

Basford, Leslie, et al , The Rays of Light . New York: Foundations 
of Science Library, Greystone Press. 

Paul, D., et al , Physics: A Human Endeavour :Unit 4, The Nature of 
Light and Sound . Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and Vlinston, 1074. 

Llowarch, W. , et al , Using Light . London: Longman Group Limited. 

Optical Instruments and Ray Diagrams . Don Mills: Longman Canada Ltd. 

Barton, O.C, et al , Physics, The Fundamental Science . Toronto: 
Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1967. 

Weissman, Simon A., Modern Concepts in Physics . New York: Oxford 
Book Company, 1973. 

Williams, John E., et al , Modern Physics . Toronto: Holt, Rinehart, 
and Winston, 1976. 

Williams, John E., et al , Exercises and Experiments in Physics . 
Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1972. 

Brincherhoff , Richard F., Exploring Physic s, New Edition. Harcourt, 
Brace, and World, 1959. 

Taff el , Alexander, Physics, Its Methods and Meanings . Boston: Allyn 
and Bacon, 1967. 

Harris, Norman C, et al , Introductory Applied Physics , 2nd edition. 
Toronto: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1963. 

White, Harvey, Physics, An Exact Science . Toronto: D. Van Nostrand 
Company, 1959. 

Burns, Elmer E., et al. Physics, A Basic Science . Toronto: D. Van 
Nostrand Company, 1954. 



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108 



PHYSICS 30 
ELECTIVL 

3^-3 THE KKJETIC THEORY OF MATTER II 

30.3.1 Preamble 

Three basic assumptions of the Kinetic Theory, are: 

A. Matter is composed of tiny particles v/ith ohysical properties 
being determined by forces extended on each other and the 
distance betvyeen them. 

B. Molecules are constant chaotic motion--average kinetic energy 
depending on temperature. 

C. Molecules obeying flewton's Lav; of Motion - momentums and kinetic 
energies being conserved. 

This nodule will deal exclusively with gases based on the concepts 
derived from Kinetic Theory I. 

30.3.2 General Objectives 

A. To promote an assimilation of scientific knowledge, 

P). To promote an understanding ofthe development of skill in the 
methods used by physicists. 

C. To contribute to the development of vocational knowledge and skill. 

D. To develoD attitudes, interests, values, appreciations and adjust- 
ments similar to those exhibited by physicists at work. 

E. To develop an interest in the human history of physics. 

30.3. 3 Concepts and Learning Objectives 
The Nature of Gases 

A. Expansion, Pressure, and Diffusion 

B. Measurement of gases 

1. STP 

2. density of gases 

3. air pressure 

4. barometers 

5. buoyant forces of gases 

C. A model for the Gaseous State 

1. real versus ideal gases 

2. "average" behaviour of gases 

D. The speed of molecules 

1. Bernoul 1 i 's Theory 

2. Maxwell velocity distribution 



109 

E. The sizes of molecules 

1. collisions 

2. diffusion rate - Brown i an Motion 

F. Predicting behaviour of qases with the Kinetic Theory 

1. the effect of temperature on gas pressure (Charles' Law) 

2. the effect of pressure on volume (Boyle's Law) 

3. combined effects of temperature and pressure on volume 
(general gas law) 

4. viscosity 

G. The Second Law of Thermodynamics 

1. entropy 

2. reversibility and recurrence paradox 

30.3.4 Activities 

Activities may be chosen from the following list and correlated to 
concepts; it is not intended that all activities be accomplished in 
the time alloted. 

A. Expansion investigated by odour detection. 

B. Diffusion investigated by mixing ammonia and hydrogen chloride in 
two warm bottles and inverting one over the other (HCl on bottom), 
the white cloud produced shows movement of gases opposite to 
gravitational attraction. 

C. Determination of the density of various gases. 

D. Use Torecilli's example of the human diaphram as demonstration of 
air pressure. 

E. Construction and study of mercurial and aneroid barometers. 

F. Use Archimedes Principle to demonstrate buoyancy of air. 

G. Demonstration of speed of molecules with helium and air in voice 
box or pin hole diffusion apparatus with less volatile substances. 

H. Investigate Boyle's Law with open and closed end manometer tubes. 

I. Investigate Charles' Law with closed end manometer tube and large 
glass bulb employing large range of temperatures. 

J. Use venturi meter to investigate effects of fluid motion and 
viscosity. 

30.3.5 Evaluation 

The evaluation of the module may take the form of written laboratory 
reports, objective examinations or perhaps a paper which would include 
any results and observations the student may have made during the 
activities. Any of the foregoing activities may be altered to accommo- 
date the less mathematically inclined student, however, all students 
should come away with the realization that molecules are in constant 
chaotic motion - average kinetic energy depending on temperature and 
that molecules obey Newton's Laws of motion. 



no 



.30.3.6 References 



Dull, Charles E., H. Clark Metcalf, and John E. Williams. Modern 
Phy_si_cs. Nev/ York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1954. 

Noakes, G.R, A_ Textbook of Heat. New York: Macmillan and Co. Ltd. 
1965. 

Genzer, Irwin, and Philip Youngner, Physics, Teachers edition, 
Morristown, New Jersey: Silver Burdett - General Learning Corporation, 
1973. 

Rutherford, F. James, et al . Pjoject^Physjcs Re ader Unit 3 The Trium ph 
of Mechanics. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston Inc., 1975. 

Rutherford, F. James, et al . Project Physics Text New York: Holt, 
Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1975, 

Semat, Henry and Robert Katz. Physics Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and 
Winston of Canada Ltd., 1958. 

Shamos, Morris H. Great Experi ments in Physics New York: Holt, 
Rinehart and Winston Inc. 1959. 

Stollberg, Robert, Faith Fitch Hill, and Marvin H. Nygaard. Fun damentals 
of Physics . Canadian ed. Don Mills: Thomas Nelson and Sons (Canada) 
Ltd., 1968. 



Ill 



PHYSICS 30 
ELECTIVE 

30 . 4 THE SPECI AL TH EORY OF RELATIVITY 

Note: This module should not be attempted until the students are well into 
Physics 30 and it should be attempted, in this form, only by rather 
mathematically inclined students. 

30.4.1 Objectives 

A. To develop an understanding of one of the more exciting areas of 
modern physics. 

B. To develop an understanding of the role that intuition, rational and 
critical thinking, and creativity play in physics. 

C. To develop, by delving into a difficult areas of physics, attitudes, 
interests and values similar to those displayed by scientists at 
work. 

D. To promote an understanding of the effect that relativity theory 
has had on our whole culture. 

30.4.2 Concepts and Lea rning Objectives 
A student should be able to: 

A. Identify at least two major experiments, or two crises in physics, 
that led to the theory of relativity. 

B. Identify and discuss the two assumptions basic to the special 
theory of relativity. 

C. Outline the implications of the theory of relativity for our basic 
concepts of spece, time, mass, energy, etc. 

D. Name at least three ways in which the special theory of relativity 
has influenced, or may influence in the future, our whole culture. 

30.4.3 Suggested Activities 

A. Outline the ether theory and find out what the result of the 
Michel son-Mori ey experiment implied for the speed of the earth 
through the ether. 

B. Discuss at least four of the following problems: 

1. What are some of the effects of length contraction and time 
dilation? 

2. Is Newton's second law still valid in special relativity? 

3. How is kinetic energy defined in special relativity? Can you 
show that it gives the classical result K.E = 1/2 p.iv2 for 
low speeds? 

4. Uhat are some of the effects of E = mc^ on our society? 

5. What effect does m = mQ / /f- (v'/c^) have on Thompson's (e/m) 
experiment? 



112 

Outline some experimental verifications of the special theory of 
relativity. 



30.4.4 Evaluation; 



The evaluation should be based mainly on a verbal or written report 
and the activities mentioned. The topic is sufficiently open-ended so 
that students may follow their own dictates at a certain point. Also, 
the activities could be amended for students with a less mathematical 
background. 



30.4.5 References 



Bridgeman, P. A Sophisticate' s Primer on Relativity Wesleyan 
University Press. 

Rogers, E.M. Physics for the Inquiring Mind New Haven: Princeton 
University Press, 1960. 

"The Clock Paradox" Scientific American February, 1963. 

"The flichel son-Morley Experiment," Scientific American , November. 
1964. 



113 



PHYSICS 30 
ELECTIVE 



30 . 5 ALTERNATING CURRENT 

30.5.1 Obje ctives 

A. To show how an industrialized society becomes dependent on science. 

B. To show the interaction of physics and technology. 

C. To promote the process of observing, hypothesizing, classifying and 
interpreting data. 

D. To promote the development of skills in the manipulation of 
materials and in the ability to solve problems. 

30.5.2 Concepts 

A. Current and Voltage 

1. A single conducting loop rotating at a constant speed in a 
uniform magnetic field generates an alternating EMF. 

2. An alternating current may produce a sinusoidal current and 
voltage. The current and voltage take on positive and negative 
values. The power curve, although sinusoidal, is always 
positive. 

3. In a purely resistive circuit, the voltage and current are in 
phase. 

4. The instantaneous value of the EMF is 

e = E sin 9 
max . 

The instantaneous current in a purely resistive circuit is 

expressed as 

i = I sin 9 
max. 

5. The current and voltage are always expressed in terms of their 
effective values. For single phase sinusoidal currents and 
voltages, the effective values are equal to .707 or 1 of 

of the maximum values. ~^ 

/2 

6. The effective value of an alternating current is the number 
of amperes which, in a given resistance, produces heat at the 
same rate as that number of amperes of steady direct current. 

I .. = .707 I or I = 1.414 I .. 
eff. max. max. eff. 

7. One ampere of alternating current is that current which produces 
the same heating effect as one ampere of direct current. 

Also, V .. = .707 V or V = 1.414 V .. 
eff. max. max. eff. 



114 



In a direct current circuit, pov;er is the product of volts 

times amoeres, that is, n ,,t d t?t 

r = VI or P = I R. 

Power in an alternating circuit is also equal to FR but this 
only is true for instantaneous values or when current is at a 
peak since averaqe power is half the maximum or peak power, 
in a purely resistive circuit, 

P F R 
average max. 



B. Inductance 

1. If there is no inductance or capacitance, but a purely resistive 
circuit, the amperage and voltage are commonly sine curves in 
phase and act like direct current circuits, 

2. Circuits whose sole function is to orovide heat are generally 
pure-resistive circuits. 

3. The property of a circuit which opposes any change in the value 
of the current in a circuit is termed inductance or self- 
inductance. Inductance in electricity is analagous to the 
property of inertia in mechanics. Inductance is not a material 
thing but a circuit property. 

4. An inductive circuit usually occurs in the form of a coil. 

The windings of a motor, generator, and transformer are circuits 
that have induction. The inductance of a circuit is determined 
by (1) the number of turns in the coil, (2) the cross-sectional 
area, (3) the magnetic permeability of the core, (4) the 
transverse length of the coil, and (5) the shape of the coil 
and its core. 

5. A coil provides opposition to the current in a circuit. 

6. In a purely inductive circuit, the current lags the voltage by 
90° or one-quarter cycle. 

7. A coil is said to have an inductance (L) of one henry when a 
change of current of one ampere per second through it induces 
a back EMF of one volt. A practical unit of inductance is a 
mH or a y H. 

8. The opposition of a coil to an alternating current due to its 
inductance is called inductive reactance (X.), measured in ohms, 
and given by 

X^ = 27TfL 

9. Circuits usually have resistance as well as inductive reactance 
and the current lags the voltage by an angle greater than 0° 
but less than 90°. If the ohmic resistance is equal to reactive 
resistance, the current will lag the voltage by 45°. 

The vector sum of a resistance and an inductive reactance is 
known as impedance (Z) and is given as 



/ R^ + (X|_)^ in ohms 



115 



Ohm's law then becomes 



I 

7 



V V 



/R'^ + (X^) 



C. Capacitance 



1. The effect of a capacitor is to prevent a change of voltage or 
to keep potential difference from building up in the circuit. 

2. The effect of a capacitor in a direct current circuit is to 
stop the flow of current entirely. The effect of a capacitor 
in an electrical circuit is analagous to the back-and-fourth 
surging of the water through the line of a reciprocating pump. 

3. A capacitor holds or stores electrical charge. Capacitance (C) 
is measured in farads (F). A farad is the capacitance of a 
capacitor when a potential difference of one volt across it 
establishes a charge of one coulomb. 

4. The practical unit of capacitance is a yF or a ypF. 

5. A capacitor stores charge until its back EMF is equal to the 
applied voltage. 

6. The opposition which a capacitor offers to an alternating 
voltage is called capacitive reactance (X ), measured in 
ohms, and given by 

X 1 
c = 



2TTfC. 



In a purely capacitive circuit, the current leads the voltage 
by 90°. 

Every capacitor offers some resistance to the flow of an 
alternating current in a circuit. When a resistor and a capacitor 
are in series in an alternating current circuit, the current 
lead the voltage by amounts varying from 0*^ to 90° 

The vector sum of a resistance and a capacitive reactance is 
given by 

Z = /"r^ + (X )' in ohms, 
c 



Ohm's law then becomes 
I = -X. . __ 



/R^ + (X )' 
c 

Inductance, Capacitance, Resistance 

1. All electrical devices connected to a source of alternating Ef^F 
contain a certain amount of resistance, inductance, and 
capacitance. If inductance and capacitance are small. Ohm's 
law can be applied without adjustment to find the current. 

2. It is impossible to have a pure inductance circuit, a pure 
capacitive circuit, or simply a combination of the two, since any 
circuit must have resistance. We must consider all three in 
practical computation. Often, one or two of the effects might 

be negligible. 



116 

3. If both inductance and capacitance are present in a series 
circuit one tends to neutralize the other since their effects 
are opposite. The net reactance (X) is the difference between 
them, 

L C C L depending on which is 

greater. 

A, If inductive reactance and capacitive reactance are not relatively 
small, they will involve phase differences or time lags. 

5. The vector sum of the resistance and reactance is given by 

' L c' 
and Ohm's law becomes 

1 = ^-= ^ 

Z , 



6. If X, = X , Z = v/ R=^ = R and Ohm's law if , V 
L c' I = ^ 

E. Resonance 

1. When inductive reactance equals the capacitive reactance, 
resonance results in an alternating current circuit. The 
resonance frequency (f ) is given by 

1 

f = 

2 TT v/TC" 

F. Power 

1. No Dower is consumed by a coil because voltage and current 
are' 90° out of phase, (cos 90° = 0). The same is true of a 
capacitor. However, if there is resistance in the circuit, power 
is consumed because the phase angle is not 90° and therefore 
must be considered. 

2. In a purely resistance circuit, P = VI since cos 0° = 1. 

3. The phase angle 9 may be calculated from 

X. - Xp 
-^ — = tan 6 



R 

The cosine may then be looked up in the trigonometric tables. 

The average useful power delivered by an alternating current 
circuit is equal to the rms current times the rms voltage 
multinlied by the cosine of the angle of lag. (6). 

P = VI cos 9 or P = EI X R = EI X 



Z 



/ 



{\ - x^) 



117 

30.5.3 Activities 

Suitable activities may be performed to illustrate inductance, capaci- 
tance, and resonance in alternating current circuits. 

30.5.4 References 

Harris C, et al, Introductory App lied Physics, 2.nd Edition 
Toronto: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1963. 

White, Harvey, Physics, An Exact Science . Toronto: D. Van Nostrand 
Company, 1959. 

Williams, John E., et al , Exercises and Experiments in Physics . 
Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1972. 

Williams, John E. et al , Modern Physics . Toronto: Holt, Rinehart 
and Winston, 1976. 

Brincherhoff , Richard F., Exploring Physics , New Edition . Harcourt, 
Brace, and World, 1959. 

Lehrman, Robert L. et al , Foundations of Physics . Toronto: Holt, 
Rinehart and Winston, 1969. 

Verwiebe, Frank L., et al , Physics, A Basic Science - Fifth Edition . 
New York: American Book Company, 1970. 

Marcus, Arbraham, Basic Electronics . Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice 
Hall, 1964. 

Marcus, Abraham, Basic Electricity, 2nd edition. Englewood Cliffs, 
N.J.: Prentice-Hall , 1964. 



118 



PHYSICS 30 
ELECTIVE 

30.6 ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS 

30.6.1 Objectives 

A. To show the application of physics to everyday life. 

B. To show the interaction of physics and technology. 

C. To promote the development of physics as a vocation. 

D. To emphasize some fundamental ideas in the field of physics. 

E. To promote skill in the manipulation of materials in the laboratory. 

30.6.2 Concepts 
A. Basic Circuits 

1. An electric circuit involves a resistance, an energy source, and 
a complete path for the energy to travel. 

2. An electric current consists of charges moving along a conductor. 

3. Electric current is measured in amperes. 

4. One ampere is equal to a flow of one Coulomb of electric charge 
per second. 

5. The opposition to an electric circuit is called resistance. 

6. The unit of resistance is an ohm. 

7. The resistance of a uniform conductor is proportional to the 
length of the conductor. 

8. The resistance of a uniform conductor is inversely proportional 
to its cross-sectional area. 

9. The resistivity of a conductor is measured in ohm-centimeters. 

10. Charges move along a conductor only if there is a "pressure" or 
an electrical force pushing them. A cell, battery, or generator 
provides the electrical force that moves charges along a 
conductor. 

11. The work done in moving a charge from one place in a circuit to 
another is called the electromotive force or the potential difference. 

12. The work done in moving a Coulomb of charge through a potential 
difference of one volt is called a Joule. 

13. The electromotive force or potential difference is measured in 
Joules per Coulomb or in Volts. 

14. The electromotive force (EMF) of a battery is the open circuit 
voltage. When a battery is supplying current to any circuit, there 
is a voltage drop within the battery caused by internal resistance. 
The potential difference across a battery is equal to the elect- 
romotive force less the potential drop created by the internal 
resistance. 



119 

15. The concept of electromotive force should not be confused with 
potential difference. Only a dry cell or a generator possesses an 
electromotive force since it converts some other form of energy 
into electric energy. The term force in electromotive force is 
incorrect because EMF is not a force but an energy per unit charge. 

16. A potential difference exists between the plates of a capacitor 
or between the ends of a resistance, but there is not EMF. In 
other words, a resistance shows a potential drop not EMF. 

17. Ohm's law states that current is directly proportional to the 
applied voltage or EMF and inversely proportional to the resistance. 

13. Symbols are used in diagramming electric circuits. 

19. The positive terminal of a cell is called the anode. 

20. The negative terminal is called the cathode. 
Series and Parallel Circuits 

1. Two or more cells connected together form a battery. 

2. A battery may be built of cells in series or in parallel or a 
combination of both. 

3. Resistence in a circuit may be connected in series or in parallel 
or a combination of both. 

4. In a series circuit the electrical components provide a single 
path for the current. 

5. In a parallel circuit the electrical components are connected in 
such a way as to provide more than one path for the current. 

6. In a series circuit the current is the same at all points of 
the conductor. 

7. The total resistance in a series circuit is the sum of the 
individual resistances. 

8. In a series circuit, the sum of all the voltage drops is equal to 
the EMF applied. 

9. In a parallel circuit each resistor provides a new path for 
electrons to flow. 

10. The total resistance of a parallel circuit decreases as each new 
resistance is added. 

11. The combined resistance of a parallel circuit is lower than the 
smallest resistance is added. 

12. The total current in a parallel circuit is equal to the sum of the 
separate currents in each branch. 

13. The voltage drop across each resistor in parallel is the same and 
is equal to the EMF of the battery or generator. 

14. In a parallel circuit, each resistor can be operated independently. 

15. The algebraic sum of all the changes in potential occuring around 
the complete circuit is equal to zero. 

16. The algebraic sum of all the currents at any circuit junction is 
equal to zero. 



120 



C. Instruments 



1. An ammeter measures current and is connected in a series with 
the circuit. 

2. A volmeter measures potential difference and is connected in 
parallel with the electrical device. 

3. A galvanometer may be changed to an ammeter or to a voltmeter. 

4. Unknown resistances can be set up and measured in parallel 
circuits using a Wheatstone bridge. 

D. Electrical Applications 

1. Electrical power is the product of voltage and current and is 
measured in watts. 

2. The electrical energy supplied to a device is the product of power 
and time. 

3. Electrical energy produces heat energy. 

4. Electrical energy is measured in Joules. 

5. Heat energy is measured in calories. 

6. There is a direct relationship between Joules and calories. 

7. Parallel and series circuits are used in house wiring. 

8. The current flowing into a house increases as additional appliances 
are turned on. 

9. Fuses and circuit breakers are safety devices which prevent too 
much current from flowing in a circuit. 

10. Ohm's law can be used on each part of a series-parallel circuit. 

30.6.3 Activities 

Suitable activities can be performed to illustrate Ohm's law, series 
circuits, parallel circuits, series-parallel circuits, the electrical 
quivalent of heat, the measurement of resistance using a voltmeter 
and an ammeter, the effects of temperature on resistance, the measure- 
ment of resistance using a Wheatstone Bridge, and simple networks may 
be structured. 

30 . 6 . 4 References 

Harris, Norman C. , et al , Introductory Applied Physics , 2nd Edition. 
Toronto: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1963. 

Barton, O.C, et al , Physics, The Fundamental Science . Toronto: Holt, 
Rinehart and Winston of Canada, 1967. 

Verwiebe, Frank L., et al , P hysics, A Basic Science , Fifth Edition. New 
York: American Book Company, 1970. 

Williams, John E., et al , Modern Physic s. Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and 
Winston, 1976. 

Weissman, Simon A., Modern Concents in Physics . New York: Oxford Book 
Company, 1973. 

Marcus, Abraham, Basic Electronics . Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice- 
Hall, 1964. 



121 



Murphy, James T., et al , Physics, Principles and Problems . Columbus 

Chalres E. Merrill Publishing, 1977. 

Murphy, James T., et al , Laboratory Physics . Columbus: Charles E. 

Merrill Publishing, 1977. 



122 

PHYSICS 30 
ELECTIVE ^ 

30.7 VECTORS AND EQUILIBRIUM 

30.7.1 Objectives 

A. To promote logical and critical thinking. 

B. To promote multi-step classification, interpretation, and application 
of data. 

C. To promote the understanding of fundamental ideas used in physics. 

D. To promote the application of physics to every day problems. 

30.7.2 Concepts 

A. Vectors 

1. A vector quantity involves both magnitude and direction. 

2. Vectors may be used to represent force, displacment, velocity and 
acceleration. 

3. Vectors acting in the same direction are added. 

4. Vector quantities acting in opposite directions are subtracted. 

5. Two vectors that are not parallel may be solved by using the 
parallelogram or triangle method. 

6. The net effect of two vectors is called a resultant. ' 

7. An equilibrium is equal in magnitude but opposite in direction to 
a resultant. 

8. Any vector can be broken up so that it is represented by two 
vectors in a process called the resolution of vectors. 

9. Any vector may be resolved into two rectangular components. Some- 
times F = F cos 9 and F = F sin 6 may be helpful. 

10. By the addition of vectors, a resultant vector can be found that, 
upon taking the place of the original two vectors, will produce 
the same motion. 

11. The resultant of many forces can be found by using a vector polygon. 
The vectors are added tail to arrow. The resultant is drawn from 
the starting point to the arrowhead end of the last vector. 

12. Concurrent forces are forces that act at a common point. 

13. The x-y set of axis may be used to solve for the resultant for a 
coplanar vector system concurrent at the origin. 

14. Trigonometry and the Theorem of Pythagoras are useful in solving 
applied vector problems encountered in piers, girders, beams, 
cables, trusses, the lawnmower, the sailboat and the sled. 

B. Equilibrium 

1. An object remaining at rest is in equilibrium and the resultant of f 
all forces acting upon it is zero. The sum of all the x-components 
of the force is zero and the sum of all the y-components of the fora 



123 

is zero. Or, forces that neutralize or cancel each other are in 
equil ibrium. 

2. The first condition for equilibrium of parallel forces is the sum 
of the forces in one direction must be equal to the sum of the 
forces in the opposite direction. Or, the algebraic sum of the 
forces acting on a body in equilibrium must be equal to zero. 

3. A second condition for equilibrium is that there must be no net 
turning effect. Or, the sum of the clockwise moments is equal 
to the sum of the counterclockwise moments about the same point. 
This means that the algebraic sum of the moments about any point 
must be equal to zero. 

4. When one or more forces acts upon a body at rest and their resultant 
sum is not zero, the body will be set into motion. Under such 
conditions, there is an unbalanced force acting and this force alone 
produces an acceleration. 

5. When a force acting on a body produces a rotation, it is said to 
exert a torque. 

6. In determining torque or twist, the centre of gravity of a body is 
considered. The centre of gravity is that point at which the 
entire weight of the object can be considered to be concentrated. 
The centre of gravity of any freely suspended body lies at, or 
directly beneath, the point of suspension. 

7. Statics deals with equilibrium conditions and solving problems of 
structures. 

C. Vector Solutions of Equilibrium Problems 

1. A tug-of-war involves forces in opposite directions. The resultant 
of two opposite forces is the difference between them. If the 
centre knot in the rope does not move, the opposing forces are in 
equil ibrium. 

2. A boat can sail into the wind because of a component of the wind on 
the sail toward the front of the boat. 

3. Tight rope walkers require equilibrium for the success of their act. 

4. A man's relative velocity whether flying a plane, rowing a boat 
across a river, walking on a train, or sailing a boat may be determined 
by using right angle vector components. 

5. Any support of a weight experiences a tension or a compression. A 
good example of this is a hoisting crane. Concurrent force 
problems illustrated by a hoisting crane depend on vector solutions. 

6. The principles of equilibrium are necessary to determine the 
forces exerted by ropes supporting a suspended weight. Suspended 
weights are in equilibrium because the tension of the supporting 
components is equal and opposite to the suspended weight. This 
example illustrates that forces combine vectorially. 

7. A cable car or a traffic light suspended by two cables illustrates 
three forces in equilibrium. The Sine Law and the Cosine Law are 
helpful in such problem solutions. 



124 

8. V/hen an airplane flies horizontally at constant velocity, the lift 
is equal to the weight and the thrust is equal to the drag. 



30.7.3 Activities 



Activities illustrating the resolution of forces, the composition of 
forces, parallel forces, the centre of gravity and equilibrium may 
be performed. 



30.7.4 References 



Williams, John E., et al , Exercises and Experiments in Physics . 
Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and Viinston, 1972. 

Lehrman, Robert L., et al. Foundations of Physics . Toronto: Molt, 
Rinehart and Winston, 1969. 

Verwiebe, Frank L., et al , Physics, A Basic Science, Fifth Edition . 
Mew York: American Book Company, 1970. 

Genzer, Irwin, et al , Physics . Morristown, New Jerse^', Silver Burdett, 
1973. 

Williams, John E., et al , Modern Physics . Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and 
Winston, 1976. 

Brinckerhoff , Richard R., Exploring Physics, New Edition . Harcourt, 
Brace and World, 1959. 

Taff el , Alexander, Physics, Its Methods and Meanings . Boston: Allyn 
and Bacon, 1967. 

Harris, Norman C, et al , Introductory Appliced Physics , 2nd Edition. 
Toronto: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1963. 

White, Harvey, Physics, An Exact Science . Toronto: D. Van Nostrand 
Company, 1959. 



125 



PHYSICS 30 

ELECTIVE 

30.8 METERS, MOTORS AND GENERATORS 

30.8.1 Objectives 

A. To promote assimilation of knowledge with emphasis on fundamental 
ideas. 

B. To promote an understanding of the interaction of physics and tech- 
nology. 

C. To promote skills such as manipulation of materials, communications, 
and solving problems. 

D. To promote physical knowledge through inclusion of practical appli- 
cations. 

E. To contribute to development of vocational knowledge. 

30.8.2 Concepts and Specific Learning Objectives 

A. Motor Effect 

1. D.C. Motors 

a. A current carrying conductor moving perpendicularily across 
a magnetic field experiences a force. 

b. Varying the intensity of the current or strength of the magnet 
field the resulting force on the conductor is increased. 

c. The functional parts of the motor are the armature, commutator, 
and brushes. 

d. The manner in which the armature and field core are connected 
can be series wound, shunt wound, or compound wound. 

e. Lenz's Law states that an induced EMF must be opposed to the motion 
inducing it. 

2. A-C Motors 

a. The induction motor or squirrel cage motor depends on a rotating 
magnetic field for its operation. 

b. The universal motor is a D-C series wound motor which will 
operate with A-C current. 

c. The synchronous motor is a constant speed motor that runs at the same 
speed as the generator. Operates by rotating magnetic fields 

and may not be self-starting. 

B. Meters 

1. D-C Meter (Moving Coil) 

a. The permanent magnet moving coil meter movement behaves like the 
armature of a motor. 



126 

b. The deflection of the indicator needle is in direct proportion 
to torque applied by the coil due to the current in the coil. 

c. Voltmeters in electric circuits are connected in parallel. 

d. The voltmeter is a galvanometer connected in series with a 
large resistance and therefore use yery little current from 
the circuit. 

e. The galvanometer can be made into an ammeter by adding a small 
resistor (shunt) in parallel with the moving coil. 

f. The ammeter used in an electric circuit must be connected in 
series with the current. 

g. Depending upon the scale deflection required. Ohm's Law is 

used to determine the resistance size for the ammeter or voltmeter. 

2. A-C Meters 

a. The moving iron-vane meter basically has two vanes (one fixed) 
surrounded by an actuating coil which subjects the vanes to a 
common magnetic field causing repulsion between the vanes. 

b. Hot wire meters depends on the electrodynamic action of the 
current (Heating effect) to indicate the effective value of the 
current. 

c. The electro-dynamometers are similar to galvanometers with two 
fixed coils producing magnetic flux. The moving coil trys 

to align itself with these two magnetic fields. 

d. Rectifier meters transform alternating current into pulsating 
d-c current calibrated usually to read effective values. 

e. Induction watt-hour meter for measuring electric energy is 
simply an induction motor that turns proportionate to the 
power used. 

C. Generator Effect 

1. D-C Generator 

a. A conductor moving perpendicularly across a magnetic field can 
generate an electromotive force. 

b. The EMF can be varied by varying the strength of the magnetic 
field or by the velocity of the conductor across the magnetic 
field. 

c. To produce direct current a generator must use a split ring 
commutator. 

d. The magnetic field generator can be wound as: 

(i ) series wound 
(ii ) shunt wound 
(iii ) compound wound 

2. A-C Generators 

a. A-C generators work on the same principal as d-c generators but 
use a slip ring rather than split ring commutators. 



127 

b. If the armature is rotating at a constant rate in a unifrom 
magnetic field, the induced voltage varies sinusodially with 
respect to time. 

30.8.3 Activities 

A. Investigate operation of simple electric motors, meters and generators 

B. Construct simple electric motors, meters and generators. 

C. Investigate historical development of meters, motors and generators. 

D. Investigate industrial uses of motors, meters and generators. 

30.8.4 Evaluation 

This elective could be evaluated mainly on the basis of electric and 
magnetic principles assimilated. A project in any area would be accept- 
able. There need not be any mathematical treatment associated with this 
elective. 

30.8.5 References 

Murohy, James T., and Robert C. Smoot. Physics Principles and Problems . 
Columbus: Charles E. Merrill Publishing Co., 1977. 

Rutherford, F. James, eta 1. Project Physics . Unit 4 Light and 
Electromagnetism . Texts and Handbook. New York: Holt, Rinehart and 
Winston, Inc. , 1975. 

Stollberg, Robert, Faith Fitch Hill, and Marvin H. Nygaard. Frontiers of 
Physics . Canadian ed. Don Mills: Thomas Nelson and Sons (Canada) Ltd, 
1968. 

Williams, John E., Trinkle and H. Clark Metcalfe. Modern Physics . New 
York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1976. 



128 



PHYSICS 30 
ELECTIVE 



30.9 THE SPEED OF LIGHT 
30.9.1 General Objectives 



A. To show the effect that developing technology has upon a scientific 
measurement. 

B. To develop an interest in the human history of physics. 

C. To apply scientific theories and produce practical measurements.. 

D. To develop an appreciation of the attitudes surrounding a scientific 
investigation. 



30.9.2 Concents 



A. The student should investigate the sequence of arguments about the pro- 
pagation of light. 

1. Empedocles - does not propagate instantaneously 

2. Pliny, the Elder - propagates faster than sound 

3. Al-Biruni - immense compared to the speed of sound 

4. Roger Bacon - too great to measure but finite 

5. Kepler - propagates instantanously 

B. The student should learn the various methods used to measure the speed 
of light. 

1. Simple Time of Flight Measurement - Galileo 

2. Using the Earth's Motion - Bradley, Roemer 

3. Using mirrors and toothed discs - Fizeau, Foucault 

4. Using Interference - Michelson 

5. Using Electro-optic shutters - Gaviola 

6. Using Radar and radiowaves 

C. The more advanced student could investigate the relationship between 
the speed of light in a medium and the index of refraction as well as 
the equality of the speed of light in a vacuum and Maxwell's constant 
which is derived from a knowledge of the electrical and magnetic pro- 
perties of matter. 



30.9.3 Activities 



The main activity would involve the preparation of a written or oral 
report in which the student demonstrates that he has achieved the 
soecific objectives 

A model of any of the velocity of light experiments might possibly 
be constructed for the purpose of illustration. The experiment 
can be duplicated with fairly simple equipment. 



129 



30.9.4 Evaluation 

Mainly based on an oral or written report. 

30.9.5 References 

Greenberq, Leonard H., Physics for Biology and Pre-Med Students 
Philadelphia, 1975, Saunders. 

Huggins, E.R., Physics One , Reading, MA,, Addison-Wesley (W.A. Benjamin), 
1968. 

Jenkins, Francis A., and Harvey E. White, Fundamentals of Optics . New York, 
1957, McGraw-Hill 

Saunders, J.H. The Velocity of Light (Selected Readings in Physics, 1965) 
Elmsford New York, 1965. Pergamon. 

Shortley, George and Dudley Williams, Elements of Physics , 2 vol. 5th Edition 
Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1971, Prentice Hall. 

Taylor, Lloyd W. and Forrest G. Tucker, Physics: The Pioneer Science , 
Dover, N.Y., 1964. 



130 

PHYSICS 30 
ELECTIVE 

30.10 TRAJECT ORIES AND ORBITS 
30.10.1 Objectives 

The objectives of this elective are for the student to: 

A. Develop an understanding of the nature of projectile motion and the 
concepts associated with circular motion. 

B. Demonstrate and experiment with the motion of bodies moving as 
projectiles, relative motion of bodies in a Galilean frame of 
reference, centripetal acceleration, centripetal force, and circular 
motion. 

C. Solve problems relating to projectile motion, circular motion and the 
motion of earth satellites. 

D. Realize the methods used by scientists to find solutions to problems. 
30.10.2 Concepts and Subconcepts Time 30.10.3 Activities and Resources 

A. An Imaginary Trip to the 1 
Moon 

1. A flight to the moon 
must take into consider- 
ation a variety of 
factors 

2. The earth-moon trip 
can be divided into 
three main parts 

a. Motion in a 
straight line 

b. Projectile 

c. Circular motion 

B. Projectile Motion 3 

1. An experiment can be Exp. Curves of Trajectories 

conducted where one PP i_io p. 1/34 

bullet |s fired ^ Forces on a Ball in Flight 

horizontally at the ^ p^^^. ^^^_^ ^^ 4^ ^ 

same time as a 

bullet is dropped. Dem. Projectile Motion 



Analysis of the 
vertically motion 
uses the formula 
y = gtV2 

Analysis of the 

horizontal motion 

uses the formula 

x = V t 
x 



Demonstration 

PPl p. 1/^6 



131 



2. The question of 
whether the vertical 
motion of an object 
is affected bv its 
horizontal motion 
must be answered. 

3. The independence 

of motions at right 
angles has import- 
ant consequences. 

a. A prediction of 
the displacement 
and velocity of 
a projectile may 
be made at any 
time during its 
flight. 

C. Describing the Path of 1 
a Projectile 

1. An equation can be 
derived that ex- 
presses the shape of 
the path. 

a. The relationship 
between x and y 
for a trajectory 
is y = kx ^ . 

b. The relationship 
between x and y 
graphical ly pre- 
duces a parabola. 

2. The physical scientist 
tries to use methods 
from other scientists 
to find solutions to 
problems. 

3. The theory of projectile 
motion may be applied to 
the free motion of a 
space capsule. 

D. Moving Frames of Reference 

1. Galileo supported the 
idea of the sun as a 
preferred reference 
frame for discussing 
motion. 



Exp, 



Prediction of Trajectories 
PP 1-11 p. 1/37 



Act. 



Ballistic Cart Projectiles 
PP 1 p. 1/47 



132 



Observations have 
produced the general- 
ization cal led the 
Galilean relativity 
principle. 

Certain relationships 
are the same for 
different reference 
frames. 



E. Uniform Circular Motion 

1. It is theoretically 
possible to project 

an object horizontally 
into an orbit of the 
earth. 

2. Uniform circular 
motion is motion in 
a circle at constant 
speed. 

a. The period or 
frequency of the 
motion may be used 
in place of speed. 

b. Speed can be com- 
puted if the 
frequency and 
radius of path are 
known. 

F. Centripetal Acceleration 
and Centripetal Force 

1. The direction of motion 
changes continually 
while speed remains 
constant in uniform 
circular motion. 

2. Acceleration for 
uniform circular 
motion is directed 
toward the centre and 
is called centripetal 
acceleration. 

a. The equation for 
centripetal accel- 
eration, 

^c " ^^^R' ^^^ ^^ 
derived. 



Act. 

FL 
FL 

FL 



Motion in a Rotating 

Reference Frame 

PP 1 p. 1/^7 



A Matter of 

PPL4 



Relative 
p. 1/59 



Motion 



Galilean Relativity 
■ Ball Dropped from Mast 
of Ship 
PPL5 p. 1/59 

Galilean Relativity Object 
Dropped from Aircraft 
PPL6 p. 1/60 



^k 



133 



3. The net force required 
to produce centripetal 
acceleration is called 
centripetal force. 

4. The relationship for 
centripetal acceleration 
may be verified using 
vector analysis. 

5. The relations v = 27t Rf 
or V = 27T R/T may be 
substituted into the 
equation for a to obtain 

equivalent ways of measuring 
a . 



Exp, 



Exp. 



Centripetal 
PP 1-12 

Centripetal 
PSSC 111-5 



Force 
p. 1/39 

Force 

p. 44 



Exp, 



Centripetal 
Turntable 
PP 1-13 



Force on a 



p. 1/40 



G. The Motion of Earth Satellites 

1. Alouette I, Canada's first 
satellite can be used to 
illustrate circular motion. 

a. The relationship 

v = 27T R/T can be used 
to find its speed. 

b. The relationship 



2. 



= V 



/R can be 



used to find its 
acceleration. 

The speed required for an 
object to stay in circular 
orbit about the earth can 
be determined. 



30.10.4 References 



Physical Sciences Study Committee. Physics 2nd Edition and Laboratory 
Guide. Vancouver: The Copp Clark Publishing Co. Ltd., 1965 



Rutherford, F. James, et al . 
Text and Handbook. New York; 



Project Physics Unit 1 Concepts of Motion 
Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1975. 



134 



PHYSICS 30 

ELECTIVE 

30.11 "PICTURES OF A MEGAJOULE" AN ENERGY ASSESSMENT PROJECT 

30.11.1 Introductory Notes 

For this elective the student should keep a notebook in which he 
answers all questions in the "Outline of Questions and Activities". All 
work leading to the answers should be shown. 

Answers that are to be transcribed to the "Pictures of a Meqajoule" 
Chart are those to questions marked R*. 

Other questions are indicated only by an * asterisk. 

The letter S indicates a supplementary task that may be done. 

A chart of comparative costs of a megajoule of energy from each of 
several sources would be interesting to many students. The costs for 
energy from food, electricity, dry cells, natural gas, and gasoline will be 
already worked out. Other sources could be investigated and added to the 
list. 

30.11.2 Objectives 

The student should increase in each of the following: 

A. Knowledge of energy uses. 

B. Knowledge of energy sources. 

C. Understanding of energy transformations. 

D. Capacity to understand conservation measures. 

E. Appreciation of energy data. 

F. Facility in the use of SI units. 

G. Appreciation of energy technology. 

H. Appreciation of the relevance of energy studies. 

30.11.3 . Activities 

A. Energy from Food 

Any one of the items listed below contains about one megajoule of food 
energy. (Normally food energy will be expressed in kilojoules). 

1. a small hamburger (really small) 

2. a large glass of mil k 

3. a peanut butter sandwich (diet design) 

4. a small piece of pie 

5. two bananas 

6. four small cookies 



135 

R* Pick your favorite food item from the list above and enter it in 
answer blank #1 on the "Pictures of a Megajoule" chart. You may want 
to put in a food item of your own choosing that has equal energy value. 

S Consult any good book on nutrition. Older books will rate the 
energy in Calories instead of kilojoules. A Calorie (nutrition type) 
is 4.186 kilojoules. 

S With the help of the nutrition guide you can determine your energy 
intake for an average day in magajoules. 

* How many hours do you think a mega joule of food energy will last you? 

* About how much do you think a megajoule of food energy usually 
costs? 

B. Energy for Life and Action 

Even when you rest or sleep you use up food energy at the rate of 
about 75 joules per second. This is called your basic metabolic 
rate. It is based on natural laws that you will find difficult to 
evade. 

R* At the above rate, for how many hours will one megajoule of 
energy last you? 

When you are running fast or swimming you are likely to use food 
energy at the rate of approximately 600 joules per second. 

R* How many minutes does it take you to use a megajoule of food 
energy when running fast or swimming? 

S Many reference books, including some encyclopedias will give you 
information on the energy required for various activities. You could 
use these resources to assess you own energy requirements. 

C. Electrical Energy for Light 

We often use a desk lamp that has a 200 watt bulb. 

R* How long does it take such a light to use one megajoule of electrical 
energy? 

Remember that a watt is a joule per second. 

Notice that when you are at rest you use less energy than the 
light bulb but when you are active you use more. 

The cost of electrical energy for household use in many parts of 
Alberta is about 0.5 cents per megajoule. 

* Is electrical energy cheaper than food energy? 

At present electrical energy is sold by the kilowatt hour (kwh) not 
the megajoule (1 kwh = 3.6 MJ). 

D. Energy to Heat Your Home 

If you are in an average gas heated Alberta home you would 
probably find that your gas meter shows that during a cold winter month 
you use about 28,000 cubic feet of gas. (Notice that your gas meter 
has not yet gone metric). 



136 

It so happens that each cubic foot of gas completely burned 
supplies roughly one megajoule of heat energy. 

R* How many minutes on the average does one megajoule of energy last 
for heating your home in mid-winter? 

We pay about 0.1 cents per megajoule for heat obtained by burning 
natural gas in an Alberta home. 

How does this cost per megajoule compared with other energy costs 
you have observed so far? 

E. The Energy of the Human Voice 

When you shout loudly you put out sound energy at the rate of about 
10"^ joules per second. When you whisper you put out sound energy at 
the rate of about 10"^ joules per second. Ordinary speech requires an 
output of about 10-5 joules per second. 

R* If you talk for 12 hours daily, how many years would it take to 
put out one megajoule of vocal sound energy? 

As you can see, a little energy does a long way when it comes to 
communication by means of sound. The sensitivity of the human 
ear is amazing. 

S Using your imagination and the facts above, devise a phone using 
a minimum of energy to transmit a message to every human being on 
earth. 

F. Solar Energy: Rays of Hope 

In the densely populated parts of Canada the year round average of 
solar power recieved is 150 watts per square metre. 

At noon on a sunny summer day in Alberta each square metre should 
be receiving solar power at the rate of approximately 800 watts. 

R* On this basis determine how many seconds it will take for one 
megajoule of energy to fall on a house roof 100 square metres in area 
near noon on a sunny summer day. 

* Using the year round average above, determine how much energy falls 
on a typical Alberta house roof in one year. 

* How much is this energy worth at the going rates for (a) gas? 
(b) electricity? 

* Consider the value at commercial rates the energy that falls on 

(a) a whole city lot in one year 

(b) the whole province in one minute. 

G. Energy Use by a Television Set 

While there are great differences among television sets when it 
comes to energy consumption, many sets use power at the rate of about 
300 watts. 

R* For how many hours will such a set run on one megajoule of electrical 
energy? 



137 

S You can estimate roughly the power consumption of household 
electrical appliances by feeling the amount of heat they produce. 
The heat produced is proportional to power consumption but in some cases 
its distribution makes it hard to feel with the hands. Also, in some 
cases the heat escapes to the air much faster than in others. 

H. Energy for a Small Calculator 

Some small calculators use about 0.25 watts of power. 

R* If such a calculator is used for one hour per day how many years 
will it operate on one megajoule of energy. 

* flow much would you expect to spend on batteries during that time? 

* Is this high priced energy by comparison with energy from other 
sources previously discussed? 

I. Energy From the Wind 

You may have noticed the recent increase in interest in wind 
power. 

The theoretical power in the wind is given by the formula 

P = 0. 013 AV3 

Where P is theoretical power in v/atts 

A is area swept by the rotor expressed in square metres 
and V is the velocity of the wind expressed in kilometres per hour. 

However, a two bladed rotor combined with an electric generator 
is likely to be only about 25% efficient in turning theoretical power 
into electrical power. 

* The information above will enable you to calculate the electrical 
output of a two bladed, two metre diameter windmill and generator 
operating in a 40 kilometre per hour wind. You will need this result 
in order to answer the next question. 

R* How many minutes will it take the generating system operating as 
described above to produce one megajoule of electrical energy? 

S Consider what electrical devices you could operate on the power 
produced by the windmill above. 

S To help you pursue this study further obtain a pamphlet which is 
available on the use of wind power in Alberta.* 

J. Energy for an Automobile 

Let us consider the energy consumption of an automobile. 

Assume that at a speed of 100 kilometres per hour its fuel 
consumption rate is 15 litres per 100 kilometres. (This is about 20 
miles per gallon in old fashioned units). 

The energy obtainable from the complete ccmbustion of a litre of 
gasoline is approximately 31 megajoules. 

R* How many metres would the automobile travel on a quantity of gasoline 
containing one megajoule of energy? 

Hawrelak, Jacalyn, Terry Rachuk, and Jim Barlishen. Wind Power In Alberta. 
Edmonton: The Alberta Research Council, 1976. 



138 

R* How many seconds would it take the automobile to use one megajoule 
of fuel energy? 

* At the current (1977) Alberta price of approximately 17 cents per 
litre what is the cost of one megajoule of energy in gasoline? 

* Why don't we burn natural gas in our automobiles? 

* If the automobile were operating at 20% efficiency what would be 
its power output expressed in watts? 

S Keep the above data in mind for comparison with that on a bicycle 
which we will study next. 

K. Energy for a Bicycle Ride 

Let us look at the energy outout of the human body by analysing 
it simply from the point of view of work done in riding a bicycle. 

The crank arm of a bicycle is 17 centimetres long. Then the pedal 
which is attached to it is pushed through a vertical distance of 34 
centimetres during a half turn of the crank shaft. Let us say that the 
vertical force applied is 170 newtons (about one quarter the weight of 
an average person). 

From this data you can find the amount of work done for a half 
turn, and hence for a whole turn of the crank. 

Next, find out how far one turn of the crank will take you along the 
the road. Use the fact that the chain drive sprocket on the crank 
has 45 teeth while the sprocket on the rear wheel has only 18 teeth. 
This, of course, causes the wheel to turn 45 times while the crank 
turns only 18 times. The diameter of the bicycle wheel is 71 
centimetres. 

R* From the above data, determine the number of kilometres you would 
ride the bicycle on your energy output of one megajoule. 

* Compare this distance with that travelled by the automobile on one 
megajoule of fuel energy. To be fair you must take into consideration 
that your body is probably only about 25% efficient in converting its 
food energy into output mechanical energy so that your food intake to 
ride the distance determined above would have to be four megajoules. 

L. Energy to Climb a Mountain 

Assume that your basal metabolic rate is 75 joules per second and 
that you make the climb in one hour. Assume also that vour body is 25% 
efficient in converting its food energy into output work when only the 
vertical distance you raise your body by climbing is considered in 
calculating output work. 

R* How high can you climb on one megajoule of food energy during one 
hour? 

S Estimate the vertical distance you have climbed on some mountain 
trail or up the river bank and determine the extra food energy require- 
ment for the cl imb. 

* Do you regain the expended energy as you go back down the 
mountain? 



139 

M. Energy in a Block of Wood 

Wood usually yields heat energy at the rate of about 18 megajoules 
per kilogram when completely burned. 

R* How many grams of wood have to be completely burned in order 
to yield one megajoule of heat? 

* If the relative density of wood is 0.5, would a cube of wood 

5 centimetres along each edge be large enough to supply a megajoule 
of heat energy upon complete combustion? 

Coal when completely burned yields energy at the rate of 32 
megajoules per kilogram. 

Uranium (U235) has 2 600 000 times as much energy as coal on a 
pound for pound basis. 

S You can think how small a quantity of uranium would be required 
in order to yield one megajoule of energy. 

N. Energy of a Moving Vehicle 

How much mass would a loaded truck have to have in order to have a 
megajoule of kinetic energy when travelling at a speed of 100 
kilometres per hour? 

* Does the size of a megajoule of kinetic energy shock you? 

0. Energy of a Body in Orbit 

R* What is the mass of a body in orbit around the earth at a speed 
of 7 500 metres per second it if has one megajoule of kinetic energy? 

Notice how speed is a greater factor than mass in determining 
kinetic energy. 

P. Energy Stored in Hot Water 

R* What is the mass of the body of water that releases one megajoule 
of heat energy as it cools from its boiling point to its freezing 
point? 

Q. Energy of a Water Fall 

What mass of water must go over a falls 50 metres high in order to 
give up a megajoule of gravitational potential energy? 

R. Energy to Overcome Friction 

R* How far would a 200 newton horizontal force have to push a sled 
along a level road at constant speed in order to produce a megajoule 
of frictional heat? 

Do you think you would be able to feel the heat produced with your 

hand? No wonder the understanding of heat came so late among 
scientific advances. It was so difficult to sense or measure in some 
instances. 

S. Energy to Change a Liquid to a Gas 

It takes approximately 2 250 joules of heat energy to change 1 gram 
of boiling water into steam. 



140 

R* What is the mass of boiling water that would be entirely converted 
to steam by supplying one megajoule of heat energy to it? 

Notice that this can happen without an increase in temperature. 

T. Energy to Make Toast 

It takes about 2 minutes for a toaster that uses electrical power 
at the rate of 1 000 watts to toast two pices of bread. 

R* From the above data determine how many slices of toast you can mak( 
using only one megajoule of electrical energy: 

30.11.4 "Pictures of a Megajoule" Chart 



QUESTIONS ANSWERS 



1. How much is a megajoule of food energy? 1. 



2. (a) How long does it take the human body 

to use a megajoule of food energy while 
at rest? 



2. (a) 



2. (b) How long does it take the human body to use 2. (b) 
a megajoule of food energy while running or 
swimming? 



3. How many hours will a desk lamp operate on a 3. 
megajoule of electrical energy? 



4. How many minutes of winter average operation does 4 
it take your household heating furnace to put out 
a megajoule of heat energy? 



5. If you talked for 12 hours a day the year round, 
how many years would it take you to put out one 
megajoule of vocal sound energy? 



141 







QUESTIOdS 


ANSWERS 




6. How many seconds does it take for a megajoule of 
solar energy to fall on the roof of an average 
Alberta home near mid-day on a sunny summer day? 


6. 


7. For how many hours will your TV set run on 
a megajoule of electrical energy? 


7. 


3. For how many years will a small calculator 
operate on a megajoule of electrical energy if 
it is used one hour per day? 


8. 


?. How many minutes does it take a two metre 


9. 



diameter two-bladed windmill to generate a 
megajoule of electrical energy in a 40 kilometre 
per hour wind? 



(a) At a speed of 100 kilometres per hour 10. (a) 
how many seconds does it take a full 
sized automobile to use up gasoline which 
provides a megajoule of energy? 



(b) How far would the automobile in 10 (a) 10 (b) 
travel while using the megajoule of 
fuel energy? 



How far can you ride a bicycle on one megajoule of 1 1 . 
output energy? 



142 



QUESTIONS ANSWERS 



12. How high can you climb on one megajoule of output 12. 
energy? 



13. How many grams of wood are required in order to 13. 
yield one megajoule of heat energy when completely 
burned? 



14. What is the mass of a moving vehicle which has one 14. 
megajoule of kinetic energy when moving at a speed 
of 100 kilometres per hour? 



15. What is the mass of a body in orbit around the 15, 
earth at a speed of 7500 metres per second 
if it has one megajoule of kinetic energy? 



16. What is the mass of the body of water that 16, 
releases one megajoule of heat energy as it cools 
from its boiling point to its freezing point? 



17. What mass of water must go over a falls 50 17, 
metres high (about as high as Niagara Falls) 
in order to give up a megajoule of gravitational 
potential energy? 



13. How far would a 200 newton horizontal force 18. 
have to push a sled along level ground at 
constant speed in order to produce a megajoule 
of frictional heat? 



I 



143 



QUESTIONS ANSWERS 



19. What is the mass of boiling water (100 C) that 19, 
would be converted to steam by supplying one 
megajoule of heat energy to it? 



20. How many slices of toast can you make with 20, 
one megajoule of electrical energy? 



21. Any others of interest to you. 21 



i 



I 

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References 



<» 



144 



REFERENCES 



Books 

The following titles are taken from lists of useful references 
prepared by D. Paul , one of the authors of Physics: A Human Endeavor. 
Extensive bibliographies are included in the Project Physics Resource 
Book as well . 

Anrade, E.N., Rutherford and the Nature of the Atom , Magnolia, MA.: 
Smith, Peter Publishing, Inc., (n.d. ) 

Andrade, Edward, N. , Sir Isaac Newton: His Life & Work, Garden City, 
N.Y.: Doubleday, 1958. 

Armitage, Angus, World of Copernicus, New York: Beekman Publishers, 1972. 

Baker, Robert A., Stress Analysis of a Strapless Evening Gown and Other 
Essays for a Scientific Age , Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 
Inc., 1963. 

Barbour, Ian. G. , Issues in Science & Religion, New York: Harper & Row, 
1971 

Barnett, Lincoln, The Universe & Dr. Einstein , Des Plaines, II.: Bantam, 
1974. 

Boas, Marie, S cientific Renaissance , 1450 - 1630, New York: Harper & 
Row (n.d.) 

Boorse, Henry A. and Lloyd Motz (ed.) World of the Atom , 2 Vols., New York: 
Basic, 1966. 

Brecht, Bertolt, Galileo , New York: Grove, (n.d.) 

Clark, Ronald W. , Einstein: The Life & Times , New York: Avon, 1972. 

Curie, Eve., Madame Curie , New York: Pocket Books (Simon & Schuster), 
(n.d.) 

Dethier, Vincent G. , To Know A Fly , San Francisco,: Holden-Day, 1963 

Durrenmatt, Friedrich, The Physicists , New York: Grove, 1964 

Fermi, Laura, Atoms in the Family: My Life with Enrico Fermi , Chicago: 
U. of Chicago Press, (n.d. ) 

Ford, Kenneth W. , Basic Physics (Physical Sciences Series), Text ed. New York 
Wiley, 1968. 

Galilei, Galileo, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems - Ptolemaic 
& Copernican , 2nd ed. rev. Berkeley: U. of Cal . Press, 1967. 

Galileo, Discoveries and Opinions of Galileo , (Translated by Stillman Drake), 
Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1957. 

Gamow, George, Gravity , Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1962 



145 

Gamow, George, Mister Tompkins in Paperback , New Rochelle, N.Y.: 
Cambridge Univ. Press., 1967 

Gamow, George, Thirty Years That Shook Physics: The Story of Quantum Theory , 
Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1966. 

Gardner, Martin, Relativity for the Millions , Macmillan, 1962. 

Hoffman, Banesh, Strange Story of the Quantum, New York: Dover, 1959 

Hoffman, Banesh & Helen Dukes, Albert Einstein, Creator & Rebel , New American 
Library, 1973. 

Hoyle, Fred, The Black Cloud , New York: New American Library, 1973. 

Inglis, Stuart G. , An Ebb and Flow of Ideas , text ed. New York: Wiley, 1970. 

Jastrow, Robert, Red Giants and White Dwarfs, New York: New American 
LitDrary, 1971 

Jungk, Robert, Brighter Than a Thousand Suns: A Personal History of the Atomic 
Scientists , New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1970. 

Kipphardt, Heinar, In the Matter of J. Robert Oppenheimer , New York: Hill 
and Wang, 1968. 

Koestler, Arthur, The Call Girls, New York: Dell, 1974. 

Koestler, Arthur, The Sleepwalkers , New York: Grosset & Dunlap, Inc., 1963. 

Koff, Richard M. , How Does It Work , New York: New American Library, 1973. 

Kuhn, Thomas S. Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 2nd. ed. Chicago: U. of 
Chicago Press, 1970. 

Ley, Willy, Watchers of the Skies: An Informal History of Astronomy from 
Babylon to the Space Age , New York: Viking Press, 1963. 

Lucretius, trans, by James H. Marti nband. On the Nature of the Universe , 
New York: Ungar, Frederick, Pub. Co., (n.d. ) 

March, R. H. , Physics for Poets , New York: McGraw-Hill, 1970 

Middleton, William K., The Scientific Revolution , Cambridge, MA.: 
Schenkman, 1965. 

Middleton, W.E. Knowles, The Scientific Revolution , Toronto: C.B.C. (Canadian 
Broadcasting Corporation, 1963. 

More, Louis T. , Isaac Newton: A Biography, Magnolia, MA.,: Smith, Peter 
Publisher, Inc. , (n.d. ) 

Newton, Isaac, Opticks , Introduced by E.T. Whittaker and I.B. Cohen, New York: 
Dover, 1952. 

Pollard, Ernest C. , & Dogulas C. Huston, Physics: An Introduction , New York: 
Oxford University Press, 1969. 

Rogers, E.M., Physics for the Inquiring Mind: The Methods, Nature & Philosophy 
of Physical Science , Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 
1970. 

Schroeder, Dietrich, Physics and its Fifth Dimension Society , Jacob Way, Ma.,: 
Addi son-Wesley, 1972. 



146 



Taylor, Rupert, Noise , 2nd ed. , Baltimore, MD, : Penguin, 1975. 

Thumm, Walter and Donald E. Tilley, Physics: A Modern Approach, Menlo 
Park: Cummings, 1970. 

Toulmin, Stephen & June Goodfield, Fabric of the Heavens: The Development 
of Astronomy and Dynamics , New York: Harper & Row, (n.d. ) 

Vonnegut, Kurt, Jr. Player Piano, New York: Dell, 1974. 

Williams, L. Pearce, Michael Faraday , New York: Simon & Schuster, Inc., 
1971. 

The following books may also be of use in teaching this physics course. 

Agassi, Joseph, The Continuing Revolution - A History of Physics from Greeks 
To Einstein. New York: McGraw Hill Company, 1968. 

Board of Editors (eds.). Best of Physics from Science Teachers Workshop , West 
Nyack, New York: Parker Publishing Co., Inc., 1972. 

Bolton, W., Patterns in Physics . London: McGraw Hill Book Co., (UK) Ltd., 
1974. 

Crosland, M.P. (ed.) The Science of Matter - A Historical Survey Hammondsworth, 
Middlesex, Penguin Books Ltd., 1971. 

Feynman, Richard P., et al . , The Feynman Lectures on Physics , Vol. I and II. 
Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1963. 

Fine, Richard. The Renewable Energy Handbook, Toronto: Energy Probe (n.d.) 

Fischer, Robert B., Science, Man and Society , Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders 
Company, 1975. 

Foreman, Harry, Media Power and the Public , Garden City, New York: Doubleday 
(Canadian Books) and Co. , Inc. 

Fowler, John W. Energy - Environment Source Book , Washington: The National 
Science Teachers Association, 1975. 

Hind, D.L., and J.J. Kipling, (eds.) The Origins and Growth of Physical 
Science , Vol. I. Hammondsworth, Middlesex; Penguin Books Ltd., 1964. 

Irwin, Keith Gordon, The Romance of Physics , New York: Charles Scribner's 
Sons, 1966. 

Jaki, Stanley I. The Relevance of Physics , Chicago: The University of 
Chicago Press, 1966. 

Klepesta, Josef and Antonin Ruki , A Concise Guide in Colour: Constellations. 
London: Hamlyn, 1969. 

Lewis, John L., (ed.) Longman's Physics Topics , London: The Longman Group, 
1970. 

Titles 

Duff, Alan. Pressures 

Harrison, R.D. Forces 

Jardine, Jim. Mass in Motion 

Lewis, John L. and D. E. Heafford. Electric Currents 



147 



Lewis, J. L. and E.J. Wenham. Radioactivity 
Lindsay, Donald. F rom Darkness to Light 
Llowarch, W and B.E. Woolnough, Using Light 
Osborne, John N. Electromagnetism 
Parker, Alfred J., Philip E. Heafford. Heat 
Wenham, E.J. Planetary Astronomy 

Meiners, Harry, P., (ed.) Physics Demonstration Experiments Vol. I & II, 
New York: The Ronald Press Co., 1970. 

Minnaert, M. The Nature of Light and Colour in the Open Air ., New York: Dove 
Publications Inc., 1954. 

Nuclear Power in Canada, Questions and Answers , Toronto: Canadian Media 
Association (n.d. ) 

Physics Survey Committee, Physics in Perspective , Vol. I. Wasington: 
National Academy of Sciences, 1972. 

Prenis, John, Energy Book , Philadelphia: Running Press, 1963 

Reichen, Charles - Albert, A History of Physics , Vol. 8 New Illustrated 

Library of Science and Inventions , New York: Hawthorn Books, Inc., 1963, 

Science Council of Canada, Canada's Energy Opportunities Report #23. Ottawa: 
Information Canada, 1975. 

Scott, B.I.H., A Modern Approach to Magnetism , Agincourt, Gage Educational 
Publishing Ltd., 1975. 

Smith, Stephen M. (ed.) Energy-Environment Mini-Unit Guide , Washington: 
The National Science Teachers Association, 1975. 

Space Resources for Teachers, Space Science, Washington, D.C.,: National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1969. 

The Observers Handbook , Toronto: The Royal Astronomical Society of Canada. 

Walker, Jearle. The Flying Circus of Physics , New York: John Wiley & Sons, 
Inc., 1975. 

Periodicals 

Scientific American 

415 Madison Avenue 
New York, 10017 

Physics Teacher 

America Institute of Physics 
335 E. 45th Street 
New York, N.Y. 10017 

American Journal of Physics 

America Institute of Physics 
335 E. 45th Street 
New York, N.Y. 10017 



148 



Sky and Telescope 

Sky Publishing Corporation 
49-51 Bay Street Road 
Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 

Physics Today 

America Institute of Physics 
335 E. 45th Street 
New York, N.Y. 10017 

Popular Astronomy 

245 E. 25th Street 
New York, N.Y. 10010 

Testing Materials 

A series of tests prepared by Harvard Project Physics are available on 
duplicating masters from Holt, Rinehart and Winston of Canada, Ltd. 

Audio Visual Materials 

See ACCESS catalogues and Learning Resource Catalogue put out by Audio 
Visual Services Branch. 



149 



ABBREVIATIONS 

1. Act. - Activity 

2. Dem. - Demonstration 

3. Exp. - Experiment 

4. F - Film 

5. FL - Film Loop 

6. FS - Film Strip 

7. LPT - Longmans Physics Topics 

8. N - Nuffield Physics 

9. NT - Nuffield Teachers Guide 

10. PHE - Physics: A Human Endeavour 

11. PP - Project Physics (text) 

12. PPHB - Project Physics Handbook 

13. PPR - Project Physics Reader 

^^- PPRB - Project Physics Resource Book 

15. PSSC - PSSC Physics Text - 2nd Edition 

16. Read - Readings, articles, notes, papers, thesis 

17. S - Slide 

18. SA - Scientific American 

19. SH - Stollberg and Hill, Fundamentals of Physics 

20. SHE - Stollberg and Hill, Frontiers of Physics. 

21 . SR - Student Reference 

22. TR - Teacher Reference 




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